Table of Contents Charles Webster Leadbeater 1854-1934
A Biographical Study
by Gregory John Tillett
Table of Contents
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Throughout the notes, locations are given for sources which may not be readily accessible. The coding (given in [ ]) is that used in the bibliography.
Works for which no author is cited and which are preceded an asterisk (thus *The Astral Plane) are either solely or jointly by C.W. Leadbeater, and appear in the first section of the Bibliography.
Chapter l: Notes
1. Quoted in Fawn M. Brodie, No Man Knows My History, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1983:vii
2. Brodie, above cit.:vii
4. Sources are not given for all of the statements in this chapter since it is intended as an introduction to the work as a whole and the statements occur elsewhere in the text, where they are fully documented. Those which do not occur elsewhere are annotated in this chapter.
5. For details of the occult chemistry research, c. Jinarajadasa, 1938
6. Leadbeater saw many kinds of animal life on Mars but on Mercury the "only animal life I saw was a small thing like a rabbit", beautiful butterflies, and cactus-like vegetation. In World Theosophy, December, 1931:917-8. Other visionaries had penetrated the depths of the solar system; the first had been Emmanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772), who described the inhabitants and lifestyle of Mars, Venus and the Moon. One of the most noted was Helene Smith (i.e. Catherine Elise Muller, 1861-1929), whose Martian explorations were the subject of a detailed study, in which a conclusion was reached which applied equally to Leadbeater: "We are struck by two points, the complete identity of the Martian world, taken in its chief points, with the world in which we live, and its puerile originalia in a host of minor details." Quoted in Fodor, 1966:287. For a general account of the genre, cf. Fodor, 1966:287. Andre Jackson Davis (1826-1910) also explored the planets in his Harmonial Philosophy, William Rider and Sons, London, 1917:24-46.
7. For details of the Masters, see *The Masters and the Path, 1925.
8. For the evolution of man on this planet, cf. *Man. Whence, How and Whither, 1913.
9. For a general study of occult physiology and anatomy, cf. Walker, 1977.
10. For life after death, see *The Other Side of Death, 1903,
11. The account of the rock which loved the boy appears in various places, including in Leadbeater's "Rock consciousness", in The Liberal Catholic, October, 1947:236-7.
12. See Star Congress at Ommen, 1925:7
13. For the Christian sacraments, see *The Science of the Sacraments, 1920
14. For the results of Leadbeater's clairvoyant research into these matters, cf. *The Hidden Side of Things, 1915.
15. Cancer cells, Leadbeater said, were "exactly like the normal cell except that it was a looking glass image of it". Quoted in Jinarajadasa, 1938:58
16. lt seems that Leadbeater, although nominally recognizing both Anglican and Roman Catholic Orders, did not in fact recognize them as being "as valid" as his own, once he had become a Liberal Catholic bishop. He tended to re-baptize those who sought admission to the Liberal Catholic Church even when they had previously been baptized into Anglican, Roman Catholic or Orthodox Churches, and to re-ordain clergy from those churches. See the letter from Bishop Burt in The Liberal Catholic, October, 1948; the baptismal register of St Alban's Church, Sydney, supports this view. This may also have been connected with a belief that Wedgwood had "purged" the Apostolic Succession of the Roman Catholic Church received by him, and that therefore the Liberal Catholic Church had Orders which were "more valid" than other churches.
17. Quoted in The O.E. Library Critic, October 7th, 1925.
18. Quoted in the American Theosophist, July, 1981:196. By 1982 there were, according to Bowker's Books in
Print, 1981-2 (R.K. Bowker and Co, New York, 1981)
7 titles of Leadbeater's in print in English (excluding Indian imprints - and thus the Theosophical Publishing House in India). British Books in Print 1981 (J. Whitaker and Sons, London, 1981) listed 11 titles, and Australian Books in Print (D.W. Thorpe, Melbourne, 1982) listed 2. The 1983-84 Books in Print listed 7 works by Leadbeater, and 1 jointly by Leadbeater and Besant. The 1984 British Books in Print listed 11 works by Leadbeater, and 4 jointly by Leadbeater and Besant. The 1985 Australian Books in Print listed 2 works by Leadbeater.
19. For general studies of the occult revival of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, cf. Webb, 1971 and 1981. For popular studies of the late twentieth century revival cf. Nat Freedland, The Occult Explosion, Michael Joseph, London, 1972; John Godwin, Occult America, Doubleday and Co, New York, 1972; Time, June 19th, 1972:40-8. For scholarly studies of the modern revival, cf. Galbreath, 1971; Tiryakian, 1974; Marty, 1970; and Ejerfeldt, 1974.
20. Cf. Arthur Calder Marshall's review of The Elder Brother, in The Times Literary Supplement, July 9th, 1982.
21. For a summary of research into the aura, see Lyall Watson, Supernature, Coronet, London, 1974:141-50 and Stanley Krippner and Daniel Rubin (Eds), Galaxies of Life, Interface, New York, 1973. Whether or not there is scientific validity in claims about the aura, it remains significant that Leadbeater's descriptions (given initially in an article in The Theosophist in 1895, and in considerable detail in Man Visible and Invisible in 1902) have been more or less repeated by later researchers, both scientific and occult. The earliest scientific study of the aura was published by Dr J Walter Kilner (1847-1920), a physician at St Thomas' Hospital, London. He published The Human Atmosphere in 1911. Cf. W.J. Kilner, The Human Atmosphere, University Books, New York, 1965, and The Aura, Samuel Weiser, New York, 1973.
22. For the history of vegetarianism, cf. Berry, 1979 and Janet Barkas, The Vegetable Passion, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1975. The author of that work underestimates the importance of Theosophy as an influence on popularizing vegetarianism, focusing on Anna Kingsford and Annie Besant (pp. 85-7) and the brief Theosophical Society contact of Gandhi (pp. 29-30). She does not mention Leadbeater.
23. For the historical and cultural background to the "New Age", cf. Theodore Rosak, The Making of a Counter
Culture, Faber, London, 1972. For an "inside" survey of the area, cf. Spiritual Community Publications, Spiritual Community Guide 1975-76, Spiritual Community Publications, San Rafael, 1974. Fora broad coverage of groups within the area, cf. J. Gordon Melton, Encyclopedia of American Religions, McGrath, Wilmington, 1978, vol. 2, chapter 17.
24. Cf. Albert Goldman, Elvis, McGraw-Hill, 1981:636.
25. For example, see the studies of Psychiana and The I Am Movement (which has numerous derivatives) in Braden, 1949:78-127 and 257--307. The section on "New Vessels for the Ancient Wisdom" in Ellwood, 1973:88-130 includes material from post-Leadbeater movements showing clearly his influence, as does the section "Other Offshoots and Related Groups" in Campbell, 1980:159-65. Those movements which have most literally expanded upon Leadbeater's teachings are those in the "I AM" tradition, which had its beginnings in the work of Guy Ballard (1878-1939) and his wife, Edna, in California in the 1930's - cf. Campbell, 1980:161-3, Braden, 1949:257-307 and Ellwood, 1973:121-125. They emphasized a pantheon of "Ascended Masters", the use of Rays of various colours, vibrations, the chanting of mantras, and the passage of the chosen disciple through a sequence of spiritual initiations conferring great occult powers. Following on from the now virtually defunct I Am movement are many similar groups.
26. Sheehan, 1925:28
27. Hodson and van Thiel, nd:18
29. The International Theosophical Year Book, 1937:218. [*TSA]
30. The Liberal Catholic, April, 1934:301.
31. Quoted in The Canadian Theosophist, October 27,
32. Ibid: June, 1934:122.
34. Dawn, May 1st, 1923:15.
35. For Dion Fortune, cf. Cavendish, 1974:88; King and Sutherland, 1982:144-57, Colquhoun, 1975:184-9, 217-9
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and Alan Richardson, Dancers to the Gods, Aquarian Press, Wullingborough, 1985. For her contents on Leadbeater, cf. King, 1971:122, and her own books Applied Occultism, Aquarian Press, Wellingborough, 1973:78-9, and Sane Occultism, Aquarian Press, Wellingborough, 1972:129-30.
36. For Crowley, cf. Cavenish, 1974:70-2; John Symonds, The Great Beast, Rider, London, 1951 and Crowley's own "autohagiography", edited by John Symonds and Kenneth Grant, The Confessions of Aleister Crowley, Jonathan Cape, London, 1969. For Crowley on Leadbeater, cf. King, 1971:135, and The Equinox, September, 1913:xxix.
37. For a bibliography of Rajneesh's comments, cf. Weeraperuma, 1981:46, 100. Cf. Rajneesh Foundation Newsletter, April 16th, 1979:4-6.
38. Cf. John Bull, February 9, 1909:141, and The New Statesman, March 1.0, 1934:338
39. Keyserling, 1926, vol. I:120.
40. Quoted in Landau, 1964:175.
41. Williams, 1931.
42. In The Canadian Theosophist, October, 1933:248.
43. In The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, volume XI, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, 1964: letter to Dr Pranjivan Meh, May 8th, 1911.
44. Quoted in Henry Summerfield, That Myriad Minded Man, A Biography of George William Russell, "A.E.", Colin Smyth, Gerrard's Cross, 1975:134
45. Quoted in The Canadian Theosophist, June 15th, 1934:121-2.
46. George Arundale in Besant, 1939:38.
47. Cf. Eirenicon, Winter, 1963, and Spring, 1961. [*]
48. Ryan, 1975:306.
49. Hodson and van Thiel, n.d.:20.
50. cf. Nethercot, 1961 and 1964
51. Nethercot 1961:13
52. Nethercot, 1964:467-8
54. Letters from Dr Nethercot to the author, March 3 1977; August 1, 1979; January 18, 1980. Dr Nethercot commented: "I am delighted to learn that someone is going to complete the history of the triumvirate, Besant-Olcott-Leadbeater." (March 3, 1977) [*]
55. cf. Weeraperuma, 1974 and 1982
56. Shringy, 1977. For other theses, cf. Weeraperuma, 1982.
57. Campbell, 1980:147
59. Cf. lbid:172
60. For the influence on Gandhi, cf. Louis Fischer, The Life of Mahatma Gandhi, Granada, London, 1982:53-4, 89-90.
61. See chapter 23
62. For Steiner, cf. Ahern, 1984 and Wilson, 1985. For Bailey, cf. Campbell, 1980:150-3 and Ellwood, 1973:103-6.
63. Cf. Ellwood, 1973:74-9, 88-130 and Melton, 1978, vol. 2:135-93. This is also considered in chapter 22.
64. Cf. van Sommers, 1966:114-5, Rodd, 1972:6-9 and Drury & Tillett, 1980:21-5.
65. Mary Lutyens (1908- ) is an eminent historical writer, better known for her studies of John Ruskin, Effie Gray, the Lytton family and her father, the architect Sir Edwin Lutyens (1869-1944), than for her works on Krishnamurti.
66. The Times Literary Supplement, July 9th, 1982:732.
67. The Sunday Times (London), July 25th, 1982.
68. Catholic Herald (London), August 6th, 1982.
69. The Bulletin (Sydney), November 2nd, 1982.
70. Choice (New York), February, 1983.
71. Theosophy in Australia, December, 1982, and The Theosophical Journal (London), December, 1982.
72. See Shearman, 1980. It was reviewed in highly favourable terms in The American Theosophist, June, 1981, by a reviewer who agreed with Shearman that Leadbeater was "the greatest occultist of the twentieth century".
73. Shearman, 1980:1
78. *A Christian Gnosis, 1983:ix-xxix
79. For an introduction to cognitive dissonance, cf. Festinger, Riecken and Schachter, 1964:3-32
80. Reynolds and Capps, 1976:4
81. Cf. Thomas E. Berry (Ed), The Biographer's Craft (Odyssey Press, NY, 1967). For a summary of developments in anthropology and psychology, see Reynolds and Capps, 1976:8-27.
82. Reynolds and Capps, 1976:85
84. For this evolutionary model, cf. Jinarajadasa, 1922:46 and 107.
85. Wood, 1936:143
86. In The Watchman (Sydney), a Seventh-day Adventist magazine, August, 1926.
87. Information from John Cooper, who obtained it from the singer.
88. Mary Lutyens, 1975:x.
89. Balfour-Clarke, 1977:42, also interview with
Balfour-Clarke, at Adyar, December, 1979.
90. Correspondence with Mary Lutyens, 1979, and interview with her in London, 1979.
Chapter 2: Notes
1. A.J. Hamerster, "C.W. Leadbeater", in Round Table Annual, 1932. Details of the writing of the article and Leadbeater's approval of it are in Hamerster's "Hero, Saint and Sage ", in The Theosophist, May, 1935.
2. Collected Articles of A.J. Hamerster, 7 volumes; the two articles referred to are in Volume IV; Adyar Library reference *181 Ham CA.
3. See, for example: Annie Besant, "C.W. Leadbeater", in The Theosophist, November, 1911, reprinted in The Theosophist, April, 1934; Annie Besant, "February 17th, 1847" in The Theosophist, February, 1923; J.I. Wedgwood, "Some Reminiscences of Mr Leadbeater", in Union Lodge T.S. Transactions, February 26, 1918.
4. In both The K.H. Letters to C.W. LEADBEATER, compiled by C. Jinarajadasa (1941) and in J.L. Davidge,"Authentic Biographical Notes on Bishop Leadbeater" in The Theosophist, May, 1934, there is reference to the Norman French origins of the surname "Leadbeater". However, standard references on English surnames suggest the more common derivativation of "lead beater", that is, a worker in lead. Cf. C.W. Bardsley, A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames, Geneaological Publishing Co., Baltimore, 1968; P.H. Reaney, A Dictionary of British Surnames, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1976 and J.R. Dolan, English Ancestral Names. The Evolution of the Surname from Medieval Occupations, Clarkson N. Potter, New York, 1972. No parallel French name is found in Albert Dauzat, Dictionnaire Etymologigue des Noms de Famille, Librarie Larouse, Paris, 1951. There was an eminent Leadbeater family whose surname derived from the Hugenot family of Le Batre, of which the best known member was the English authoress Mary Leadbeater (see The Leadbeater Papers, 2 vols, 2nd edition, London, 1862), but there is no reason to connect this with the Stockport Leadbeaters.
5. Mention of Bulwer Lytton (1803-1873) as an occultist occurs in The Mahatma Letters to A.P. Sinnett (A.T. Barker, 1972:209-10) in a letter from Master K.H. to
A.O. Hume; it is said that Bulwer Lytton attempted to found an occult school in London in the 1860's but failed because of the "pestilent London atmosphere". Wedgwood said Bulwer Lytton was a Rosicrucian, and Weller van Hook stated he was a Master and a pupil of the Master known as The Venetian. Cf. C. Nelson Stewart, Bulwer Lytton as Occultist, TPH, London, 1927.
6. Annie Besant, "C.W. Leadbeater", in The Theosophist, November, 1911; reprinted in The Theosophist, May, 1934, and in Adyar Day, 17th November (n.d.).
7. C.W. Leadbeater, "Saved by a Ghost", in The Theosophist, January, 1911; published separately with notes by C. Jinarajadasa under the title Saved by a Ghost. A true story of adventure in Brazil near Bahia, 1861-2, of Charles Leadbeater, senior, Charles Leadbeater and Gerald Leadbeater , C Jinarajadasa) and also includes with some changes in C.W. Leadbeater, The Perfume of Egypt and other weird stories, TPH, Adyar, 1911 (further editions 1912, 1936, 1948 and 1967). All quotations are from the 5th edition, 1967.
8. Jinarajadasa identifies the railway as "The State of Bahia South Western Railway Company", and said he had visited their offices in an attempt to find documentary evidence of Leadbeater's father's involvement; but "owing to local revolutions the company's books are untraceable and probably were burnt in some fire." Jinarajadasa's notes, including this comment, are found on a printed slip included in the offprinting of the article from The Theosophist. Leadbeater's knowledge of Brazilian railway history appears to have been defective. The first railway - from Guanabaia Bay to Petropalis - was begun in 1854; the second from Recife to Cabo, and the third, from Rio de Janero to Quernasos (and later on to Sao Paulo) were begun in 1858. C.f. E. Bradford Burns, A History of Brazil, Columbia University Press, New York, 1971: 144-5.
9. Martinez is a Spanish name; Brazil is a Portuguese-speaking country. The name Martinez does not appear in any standard history of Brazil. Nor does Leadbeater's story fit in with known Brazilian history. There were no recorded uprisings in Brazil between 1850 and 1889, a period spoken of as "the maturing of the Empire of Pedro II" by one historian. See Burns, above cit.:124-5. The Brazilian Embassy in London could not identify the events described by Leadbeater in the context of the history of Brazil. (Correspondence with author)
10. Dr Edward Bouverie Pusey (1800-1882), was an English theologian and a leader of the Oxford Movement in
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the Church of England. For a summary of his influence, c.f. Vidler, 1971:51-4.
11. *The Perfume of Egypt, 1967:209.
14. Hacienda is a Spanish word; Brazil is a Portuguese-speaking country in which hacienda is not used. Although the town in Brazil is not named, it can almost certainly be identified from the information given about its location. It was the city of Bahia, the oldest city in Brazil and then its third largest. It was one terminus for the Bahia to Sao Francisco railway of 576 kilometers, on the other end of which was the town of Joazeiro, five hours away by train on the banks of the Sao Francisco river. C.f. Arthur Bias, The Brazil of Today, Lanneau and Despret, Nivelles (Belgium), n.d. but c.1903. US
15. *The Perfume of Egypt, 1967:216
17. Clara Codd, 1951:292ff.
16. A copy of this Nemo was given to the author in 1979 by the then President of the Theosophical Society, John Coats.
19. Correspondence with the successor to that Bank, Williams and Glyn's Bank Ltd, in London, revealed that records from the period are no longer in existence.
20. Codd, above cit.
21. In the "Leadbeater Centenary Number" of The Bombay Theosophical Bulletin, Vol. XII, No. 4-5, Feb-Mar, 1947, the biographical account (pp. 5-21) included the information that the family motto was toujours pret. Fairbairn's Book of Crests of the Families of Great Britain and Ireland, 2 vols., T.C. and E.C. Jack, London, n.d., gives toujours pret ("always ready") as the motto of 12 families, and toujours prest as the motto of 18 families, none of them Leadbeater or any variant on that name. Indeed, the name Leadbeater does not appear in that work, although both Leadbetter and Leadbitter do, although without a motto resembling toujours pret.
22. J.L. Davidge (1881-1964) joined the Theosophical
Society in 1908, and became a priest of the Liberal Catholic Church in 1930. He served as General Secretary of the Theosophical Society in Australia from 1947-57. He was a close associate of Leadbeater's in Sydney in Leadbeater's final years. C.f. his "Authentic Biographical Details on Bishop Leadbeater", in The Theosophist, May, 1934.
23. Josephine Ransom, "C.W. Leadbeater: In Memorium 1847-1934", in Theosophical News and Notes, April, 1934.
24. C.f. Whos' Who in Australia 1927-28, Fred Johns (Ed), Hassell Press, Adelaide, 1927 and Who's Who in Australia, 1933-4, Errol G. Knox (Ed), Herald Press, Melbourne, 1933. US
25. A History of Theosophy and the Theosophical Society. A Study Course, The Theosophical Society in America, Wheaton, Ill., n.d.
26. Sten H.P. von Krusenstierna, "The Modern Founders", in The Liberal Catholic Church: History, Liberal Catholic Institute of Studies, Unit 3, Paper 1, Part 2, L.C.I.S., Ojai, n.d. None of the L.C.I.S. papers on the history of the Liberal Catholic Church mention any historical uncertainty, difficulty or controversy.
27. In the archives of the Esoteric Section of the Theosophical Society at Adyar is a family tree for Leadbeater drawn up by C. Jinarajadasa, a copy of which was given to the author in 1979 by the then President of the Theosophical Society, John Coats. It shows Emma Morgan's father as John Morgan, not Webster Morgan, and Jinarajadasa claims in notes attached to the family tree to have met him "about three times". As Jinarajadasa first came to England in 1889, Mr Morgan must have lived to a great age, unless Jinarajadasa is referring to a meeting when he was incarnated as Gerald Leadbeater. All the author's research into Leadbeater's family was replicated, at the request of the then President of the Theosophical Society, John Coats, by Miss Lilian Storey, Librarian of the Theosophical Society in England, and a member of the Society of Genealogists. In a letter to Mr Coats, a copy of which he gave the author, she confirmed all the information uncovered.
28. Census data was obtained from the Public Record Office, London. C.f. J. Worrall, Worrall's Directory of Stockport, author, Oldham, August, 1872. BL
29. Copies of birth, death and marriage certificates were obtained from the General Register Office, London, in 1978-9; additional research was undertaken on material
available from the census returns in the Public Record Office, London. This work was replicated by a researcher for the Theosophical Society as mentioned in note 27 above.
30. See C. Jinarajadasa, 1952:73. Leadbeater's correspondence with the English Theosophist, A.P. Sinnett, regarding the boy he was bringing back with him from Ceylon does not mention a reincarnated brother, merely a boy in whom the Master was interested. C.f. A.P. Sinnett, 1922:95. Nor is there any reference to Gerald reincarnated in Leadbeater's correspondence with H.S. Olcott, then President of the Theosophical Society, at the time: this correspondence was consulted in the archives of the Theosophical Society at Adyar.
31. C.f. Joseph Foster, Alumni Oxoniensis 1715-1886, author, London, 1888, volume III. BL
32. Correspondence with both the Registrar of the University of Oxford, and the Keeper of the Archives of The Queen's College, Oxford, indicated that there is no record of Leadbeater matriculating or entering the University.
33. C.f. A.J. Venn, Alumni Cantabridgiensis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1951, part II 1752-1900, volume IV. BL Correspondence with the Librarian of St John's College, Cambridge, indicated that there is no record of Leadbeater in the College or the University.
34. C.f. The Winchester Diocesan Calendar and Clergy List, Jacob and Johnson, Winchester, editions for 1876 and 1878. BL
35. *The Masters and the Path, 1953:38
36. Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th edition, Volume XII:732; see also John Irving, The Annals of Our Time, Macmillan, London, 1880, volume I, events for May 10 and 11, 1866. BL
37. All Saints', Margaret Street, London, was completed in 1859 on the site of Margaret Chapel, originally built in the 1830's to put into practice the ideals of the Oxford Movement. It attracted a congregation of influential laymen and was notable for the quality of its sermons, ceremonial and music.
38. C.f. Owen Chadwick (Ed), The Mind of the Oxford Movement, Adam and Charles Black, London, 1960: "Pusey and the Language of Mysticism" (pp.46-50) and "What is Puseyism?" (p.51).
39. Dr Hans Gross, Professor of Criminology at the University of Prague, quoted in Yseult Bridges, How Charles Bravo Died: The Chronicles of a Cause Celebre, The Reprint Society, London, 1957:23.
Chapter 3: Notes
1. For general surveys of the Church of England in the nineteenth century, see W.D. Chadwick, The Victorian Church (4 vols., A. and C. Black, London, 1966-1970), P.T. Marsh, The Victorian Church in Decline (Routledge Kegan Paul, London, 1959), L.E. Elliott-Binns, Religion in the Victorian Era (Lutterworth, London, 1964) and R.A. Soloway, Prelates and People, Ecclesiastic Social Thought in England.,1783-1852 (Routledge Kegan Paul, London, 1969). See also Brenda Collins, Victorian Country Parson (Constable, London, 1977) for background to Leadbeater's country curacy.
2. See R.C. Newman, 1975; also The Winchester Diocesan Calendar and Clergy List, Jacob and Johnson, Winchester, 1878, 1879, 1880, 1881. For Capes, see Who Was Who 1897-1915, Adam and Charles Black, London, 5th edition, 1960, and Crockford's Clerical Directory, London, 1883.
3. Leadbeater refers to his lay work in the Church of England in Talks on "At the Feet of the Master", 1922:214, and claims to have worked at St Alban's, Holborn (London), a notable Anglo-Catholic Centre, under the famous and controversial Anglo-Catholic priest, Fr. A.H. Mackonochie (ibid:565-6).
4. See Winchester Diocesan Calendar, above cit., 1878. Leadbeater described the parish as "congregation of farmers and labourers" (*Talks on "At The Feet of the Master, 1922:179).
5. In 1975 and 1979 the author visited both Bramshott and Liphook, and interviewed local residents who recalled the "age of Canon Capes". The present Rector had only a vague knowledge of Leadbeater, and referred to him as "someone who was a curate here once, got caught in some heresy and went to Australia". Church registers can be seen with Leadbeater's signature in them. "Hartford" is still standing, and the Church at Bramshott is little changed.
6. *How Theosophy Came to Me, 1967:8.
8. This was a popular theme at the time - see James G Campbell, Witchcraft and Second Sight in the Highlands and the Islands of Scotland, James MacLehose and Son, Glasgow, 1902.
9. The seances were held in Paris in February, 1857: c.f. G.McHargue, Facts, Frauds and Phantasms, Doubleday, New York, 1972:95-6, and Fodor, 1966:172. Napoleon III (1808-73), the son of Napoleon I's brother, Louis, returned to France in the revolution of 1848, and came to power in a coup d'etat in 1851; he lost his throne in 1871 after French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, and retired to England. The Reverend Charles Maurice Davies was a well-known, if critical, author in occult and psychical subjects: his books included Mystic London; or, Phases of Occult Life in the Metropolis, London, 1875. Daniel Dunglas Home (1633-86) was one of the most notable mediums of the nineteenth century; he travelled extensively, and achieved fame for remarkable phenomena. Ronald Pearsall (1973:67) noted: "D.D. Home dominates English spiritualism from 1855, when he arrived in England from America, until 1870. These were the golden years of Victorian spiritualism, and after his retirement no one was able to take up his mantle. If only for one reason: Home was never detected in any fraud." Home included in his circle many famous and eminent people. Cf. D.D. Home, Incidents in My Life (Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts and Green, London, 1863).
10. *How Theosophy Came to Me, 1967:10-11.
13. *The Perfume of Egypt and Other Weird Stories, 1911
14. The K.H. Letters to C.W. Leadbeater, 1941:106
16. Ibid:107 For an account of William Eglinton (1857-1933), see chapter 3. Cecil Husk (1847-1920) was an English professional singer, and later, professional medium: cf. Fodor, 1966:177-8. Presumably, "the Irresistible" was Mr Husk's spirit guide.
17. Pearsall, 1973:9-10
18. Catherine Crowe, The Night Side of Nature, or Ghosts and Ghost-seers, Routledge, London, no date but 184? includes chapters on allegorical dreams, wraiths, Doppelgangers or doubles, apparitions, the power of will, and similar subjects. A copy bearing Leadbeater's book plate was seen in the Theosophical Society library at Adyar,
19. For the Fox family and the origins of spiritualism, see Fodor, 1966:144--8, within which also see separate entries for specific spiritualist practices. For history of Victorian spiritualism, see Pearsall, 1973.
20. For a history of the Confraternity, albeit from a distinctly hostile point of view, see Walter Walsh, The Secret History of the Oxford Movement, Swan, Sonnenschein and Co, London, 1898, chapter VII.
21. Correspondence between the author and the Secretary-General of the Confraternity of the Blessed Sacrament.
22. *The Christian Creed, Its Origin and Signification, 1899; second edition, 1920.
23. *An Enquiry Into the Failure of Christianity, unpublished manuscript, 194 pages typsescript, Adyar Library and Research Centre, Reference L*091 Lea SF. Parts of this work, together with other unpublished and published talks and articles by Leadbeater, have been published as *The Christian Gnosis (1983).
24. Samuel Cox, Salvator Mundi, or is Christ the Saviour of All Men, Kegan Paul, London, 1882 (-?- edition); copy bearing Leadbeater's bookplate -?- in the Theosophical Society Library at Adyar.
Chapter 4: Notes
1. For the background to and history of Theosophy prior to 1883, cf. The Theosophical Movement, 1875-1925: 1-? Kuhn,1930:1-114; Campbell, 1980:1-29, Ransom, 1938:57-75; Ryan, 1975:30-64; Olcott, 1941; and Jinarajadasa, 1925:1-81.
2. Alfred Percy Sinnett (1840-1921) was the editor of the Pioneer newspaper in Allahabad, where he met HPB and Colonel Olcott in February, 1879, and they stayed with him
during their visits to India. He witnessed a number of phenomena associated with HPB, including a miraculous duplication of a cup and saucer. In 1883 he returned to England after conflicts with the proprietor of the Pioneer over Sinnett's sympathy with India, and became the centre of TS work in London. Both he and his wife, Patience, had become members of the TS in 1879, and Sinnett was Vice-President of the Society from 1880-1888. Cf. Barborka, 1973:23-31, 33-45; Linton & Hanson, 1973:249-58, Colquhoun, 1975:168-9 and H.P. Blavatsky Collected Writings, volume VII:395. The Occult World was first published by L. Trubner and Co., London, in 1881.
3. For supernatural phenomena in the presence of HPB, cf. Barborka, 1966, and Olcott, 1941:343-93, 429-448 for disciples' accounts; and Meade, 1980, for a critical account.
4. Sinnett, 1896:1
7. For Sinnett's letters from the Masters, cf. Barker,1933 and Barborka, 1973.
8. Amongst the numerous biographies the following should be noted: (1) By disciples: Ryan, 1975; Whyte, 1920; Butt, 1925; Sinnett, 1913; Neff, 1971, Murphett,1975; (2) Critical: Meade, 1980; Symonds, 1959, "Ephesian",1931.
9. For Home, cf. note 9, chapter 2.
10. For the Theosophical concept of the Masters or Mahatmas, cf. Cavendish, 1974:139-140; Barborka, 1973; Kuhn,1930:147-175; Campbell, 1980:53-74, Ransom, 1938:42-56. The concept of Masters or Mahatmas as presented by HPB involved a mixture of western and eastern ideas; she located most of them in India or Tibet. Both she and Colonel Olcott claimed to have seen and to be in communication with Masters. In Western occultism the idea of "Supermen" has been found in such schools as the Strikte Observanz of von Hund (1722-76), and the fraternities established by Martinez de Pasqualli (d.1774) and Louis-Claude de Saint-Martin (1743-1803). It was also central to the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn which spoke of "Secret Chiefs", and was associated with the TS from the time of its establishment in March, 1888. See Colquhoun, 1975:32-39; For details of the links between the Golden Dawn and the TS, cf. Colquhoun, 1975:118-9. For the concept of Masters generally, cf.
E.M. Butler, The Myth of the Magus , Cambridge University Press, London, 1948.
11. For the Fox family, cf. Kerr & Crow, 1983:79-110.
12. For Henry Olcott, cf. H.P. Blavatsky Collected Writings, volume 1:503-18; Murphett, 1972; Ransom, 1938:35-41; Eek, 1965:640-59; Dictionary of American Religious Biography, Henry W. Bowden (Ed), Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn., 1977:342-3; and the Olcott Centenary Number of The Theosophist, August, 1932. For Olcott's involvement in the TS, see his Old Diary Leaves, 1929, 1931, 1932, 1935, 1941 and 1954.
13. Cf. Meade, 1980:137-8; the compiler of HPB's Collected Writings suggests, without citing any evidence, that Nikifor Blavatsky died between 1863 and 1864 (Volume VII:304). Both in 1886 and 1887 HPB made statements in which she referred to herself as Blavatsky's widow, claiming that she had been at the time of her naturalization as an American citizen on July 8, 1878 (Cf. H.P. Blavatsky Collected Writings, Volume VII:304-5, 310). Virtually no biographical material exists on General Blavatsky.
14. People of the Other World, American Publishing Company, Hartford, Conn.,1875. For the letter from the Brotherhood of Luxor, cf. Olcott, 1941:75-6; Campbell, 1930:23-4 and Jinarajadasa, 1925:12-15, which includes a reproduction of the letter. For letters from the Masters generally, cf. Barborka, 1973.
15. For accounts of the founding of the TS, cf. Olcott, 1941:113-146; Jinarajadasa, 1925: 16-38; Ransom, 19:.8:76-94; Ryan, 1975:53-64; Meade, 1980:147-57.
16. Ransom, 1938:545
19. The first edition was published by W.J. Bouton, New York. For accounts of Isis Unveiled, and its writing, cf. Olcott, 1941:202-276; Meade, 1980:158-89; Kuhn, 1939:115-46; Ransom, 1938:91-101; Campbell, 1980:32-9; Ryan, 1975:65-85; Meade, 1980:158-89 and The Theosophical Movement, 1875-1925:26-41.
20. Pansil involved the repetition of the Three Refuges and the Five Precepts of Buddhism; cf. Olcott,
1954:167-8; Ryan, 1975:128; Meade, 1980:214-5.
21. The first edition was published by L. Trubner and Company, London, in 1831; the second edition in 1882.
22. For Blavatsky's letters from the Masters, cf. Barborka, 1973. For summaries of the teachings of Theosophy, cf. Campbell, 1980:53-74; Kuhn, 1930:194-300; Albertson, 1971; Judge, 1975.
23. Anna Bonus Kingsford (1846-1888) was the wife of the Reverend Algernon Kingsford, Vicar of Atcham, Shropshire. She held a M.D. from Paris, and was notable as a rabid anti-vivisectionist. Although she had entered the Roman Catholic Church in 1870, she was also a member of the TS, and President of London Lodge in 1883. Cf. H.P. Blavatsky Collected Works , Volume IX:438-40; Meade, 1980:277-8; Colquhoun, 1975:76-7.
24. *How Theosophy Came to Me, 1967:20 his Mr ,rby was not
25. This Mr Kirby was not William Henry Kirby (1872-1936), an M.A. of Oxford, who joined the TS in 1902. He and his wife remained good friends of Leadbeater's throughout his Theosophical career. *How Theosophy Came to Me, 1967:21.
26. Gerald B. Finch, who appears but briefly in TS history, was a barrister and a loyal disciple of HPB; after serving as President of London Lodge he left to become founding President of Blavatsky Lodge when it was established by HPB in direct competition with Sinnett's London Lodge in 1887.
27. *How Theosophy Came to Me, 1930:22
28. For Annie Besant's pre-TS career, cf. Nethercott, 1961.
29. A copy of his application and the entry in the membership roll is reproduced in C. Jinarajadasa, "C.W. Leadbeater's Theosophical Jubilee", The Australian Theosophist, February, 1933:165-7.
30. Sir William Crookes (1832-1919), FRS, OM, was an active member of the Society for Psychical Research as well as one of the most eminent scientists of his day. He became a member of the London Lodge in 1883, and did research into occultism with A.P. Sinnett in addition to his orthodox scientific research, which included the invention of the radiometer in 1875, and the spinthariscope in 1905. Cf. E.E. Fournier d'Albe, The Life of Sir William Crookes OM, FRS,
31. For his controversial involvement in psychical research, cf. Trevor H Hall. The Spiritualists, Duckworth, London, 1962.
32. *How Theosophy Came to Me, 1930:24-5
33. The TS originally included an inner group (the First Section) consisting of the Masters, another group (the Second Section) consisting of those chosen by the Masters as pupils, and an outer group (the Third Section), of general members. Cf. Jinarajadasa, 1925:119.
34. For William Eglinton (1857-1933), cf. Fodor, 1965:118-22, Linton & Hanson, 1973:229, and material in the following chapter.
35. For slate writing, cf. Pearsall, 1972:108-9,111-3, and Frank Podmore, Mediums of the 19th Century, University Books, New York, 1963, volume 2:204-22.
36. The Perfect Way, by Anna Bonus Kingsford and Edward Maitland, was first published by Field and Tuer, London, in 1882; this was a more Western and ostensibly a more Christian approach to occultism than HPB's, and differences between HPB and Dr Kingsford were not long in appearing. In 1384, Dr Kingsford resigned from what was the British Theosophical Society and established the Hermetic Lodge of the TS, initially under a charter from Colonel Olcott. Cf. Meade, 1980:377 and Ryan, 1975:168-72.
Chapter 5: Notes
1. For details of the conflict, cf. Kuhn, 1930:174; Ransom, 1938:196-9 and Ryan, 1975:171-2.
2. Francesca E. Arundale (?-1924) joined the TS in 1881. She was the aunt of George Arundale, whom she raised. She was a devoted disciple of HPB, who stayed with her in London in 1884 - cf. her My Guest - H.P. Blavatsky, TPH, Adyar, 1932. She was a pioneer of Co-Freemasonry in England, and introduced Annie Besant to the organization in 1902; she established Co-Freemasonry to India in 1903. From 1903 she devoted herself to educational work for women and girls in
India. Cf. International Theosophical Year Book, 1937:186.
3. Mohini Mohun Chatterji (1858-1936) was a private secretary to Colonel Olcott, and gave evidence to the SPR enquiry into the reality of psychical phenomena occurring at Adyar. He was a scholar, MA and BL of Calcutta, and wrote books in English and Bengali. He accompanied HPB and Olcott to London in 1884, and greatly influenced a number of Theosophists, including W.B. Yeats, and "A.E." [i.e. George W. Russell]. Together with another Theosophist, Laura C. Holloway, an American clairvoyant, he wrote Man: Fragments of a Forgotten History ("by Two Chelas"), TPS, London, 1885. He became the centre of controversy over rumours about his relationships with female followers in Europe in 1885-6 (see Meade, 1.80:363-6), and resigned from the TS in 1887, returning to Calcutta to practice law. Cf. Eek, 1965:638-9 and Barborka, 1973:332-3.
4. *How Theosophy Came to Me, 1930:43-4
5. The Hermetic Theosophical Society was established on April 9th, at a meeting at which Mohini Chatterji delivered, Colonel Olcott presided, and Oscar Wilde was present. Shortly afterwards the Hermetic Lodge separated from the TS and became an independent organization of which the poet "A.E." [George Russell] established a branch in Dublin. Cf. Meade, 19.30:292-3; Ransom, 1938:193-9 and Campbell, 1980:137,163.
6. Light was a leading spiritualist journal edited, at that time, by the Reverend W. Stainton Moses. It published a considerable amount of correspondence on Theosophical matters around this time. Founded in 1881, it is still published.
7. *How Theosophy Came to Me, 1930:49
9. For a summary of the identities of the Masters, see Appendix.
10. Jinarajadasa, 1941:12; a facsimile of the handwritten letter is found on pp. 6-11; cf. Barborka, 1973:308-13.
11. Cf. Eek, 1965:304-5
12. Jinarajadasa, 1941:13
13. For a facsimile of the envelope, see
14. For an account of the development of scholarly interest in oriental religions, cf. Webb, 1971:25-65
15. A.J. Cooper-Oakley (1853-1899), MA(Cantab.), joined the TS in 1884 and was its Recording Secretary from 1885-7. He and his wife travelled to India with HP8 in 1884. Leadbeater had a particular dislike of him. Isabel Cooper-Oakley ?-1914) was educated at Girton College. She became one of HPB's Inner Circle in London in 1890, and attended the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago in September, 1893. She spent the latter part of her Theosophical career accumulating material on Masonry and esoteric traditions in Europe, on which she wrote several books .
16. That HPB smoked cigarettes and ate meat remains an unpopular fact amongst Theosophists; in one standard photograph of HPB the lower section is often amputated prior to publication eliminating her hand which is shown holding a cigarette. One popular explanation for her smoking was that she was so spiritual that unless she smoked tobacco her etheric body would have dissolved.
17. Jinarajadasa, 1941:52; facsimile of the letter Given on pp. 50-1.
18. Extracts from his diary for the last days in Bramshott are found in Jinarajadasa, 1941:60-1
19. Esoteric Buddhism by A.P. Sinnett, Chapman and Hall, London, 1888. The title should have been Esoteric Budhism, to distinguish the esoteric philosophy (Budhism) from the religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama (Buddhism), but a printer's error got in the way. Sinnett claimed that the teachings contained in the book were received from the Master, and "given out for the first time". Some of these teachings were later seen to contradict HPB's teachings, and a controversy developed. Cf. Ransom, 1938:157-7, 178-9,187, 194, 255.
20. *How Theosophy Came to Me, 1930:62
21. For the "Coulomb case", cf: Theosophical Movement, 1925:59-74; Campbell, 1980:88-95; Kuhn, 1939:177-80; Ransom, 1938:209-16; Ryan, 1975:181-203; Meade, 1980:289-304 and Eek, 1965:510-513; together with Emma Coulomb, Some Account of my Intercourse with Madame Blavatsky, Elliot Stock, London, 1885.
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22. Dr Richard Hodgson (1855-1905) was an Australian who undertook legal studies at Cambridge and became an active member of and investigator for the Society for Psychical Research. Cf. Fodor, 1966:169-711; Eek, 612-26 and A.T. Baird, Richard Hodgson. The Story of a Psychical Researcher and His Times, Psychic Press Ltd, London, 1949.
23. For the SPR investigation, cf. Theosophical Movement, 1925:59-93; Campbell, 1980:87-8, 92-4; Kuhn, 1930:176--80; Ransom, 1938:211-6; Ryan, 1975:165-7, 193-201; Meade, 1930:305-9, 322-3, 361-2, 392-3; and Society for Psychical Research, "Report on Phenomena connected with Theosophy", in Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, Vol. III, December, 1885.
24. Quoted in Ransom, 1933:214
25. Cf. Renee Haynes, The Society for Psychical Research 1882-1982, Macdonald, London, 1982:141-4. For Theosophical "answers" to the SPR report, cf. Adelai E. Waterman [i.e. Walter A. Carrithers, Jnr], Obituary: The "Hodgson Report" on Madame Blavatsky 1885-1960, TPH, Adyar, 1963, and Victor Endersby, The Hall of Magic Mirrors. A Portrait of Madame Blavatsky, Carlton Press, NY, 1969.
26. For an account of these phenomena in HPB's Theosophical career, cf. Barborka, 1966.
27. *How Theosophy Came to Me, 1930:91
29. Quoted in Lutyens, 1953:113; cf. Meade, 1980:330
Chapter 6: Notes
1. Maha Nayaka Hikkaduwe Sumangala Thero (1827-1911) was High Priest of Sripada Temple, Adam's Peak and Galle District, and sponsored Olcott's work for Buddhism in Ceylon, giving his approval to the Colonel's Buddhist Catechism. He served as honorary vice-president of the TS 1880-88, and as chairman of the Priests' Association of the Buddhist Section of the TS. Cf. International Theosophical Year Book, 1937:238
2. *How Theosophy Came to Me, 1930:101
4. Quoted in Editor of "Justice", 1918:110
5. Letter from the Secretary-General of the Confraternity of the Blessed Sacrament, March 15, 1979, including an extract from the Confraternity's membership records. In The Buddhist, January 24th, 1890, Colonel Olcott, replied to the "malicious assertion, recently made, that Mr C.W. Leadbeater was not an ordained clergyman of the Church of England"; he declared that the relevant documents has been sighted by many people in Colombo, and that Leadbeater's name had been removed from the "Clergy List" when he had "become a Buddhist" (p. 48).
6. Gyanendra Nath Chakravarti (1863-1936), MA, DS, DLitt, was the representative of the Indian Section of the TS to the World Parliament of Religions at Chicago in 1893, where he also served as the Brahmin representative. He appears in Theosophical history as a rather sinister figure whose role and influence was never clearly defined, and who was held, for a time, to be a Master by Annie Besant and some of her associates (see Chapter 8). Cf. The Path, October, 1893:204-6; International Theosophical Yearbook, 1937:193-4.
7. *How Theosophy Came to Me, 1930:118; the story is also told in Barborka, 1973:308-14.
8. For the history of the Adyar estate, cf. Neff, 1934 and Adyar. The Home of the Theosophical Society, 1911.
9. Leadbeater gives an account of the estate in Adyar. The Home of the Theosophical Society, 1911.
10. *How Theosophy Came to Me, 1930:121
11. Dr Franz Hartmann (1838-1912), MD, was one of the organizers of the TS in Germany in the early 1880's, and took pansil in Ceylon in 1883. He was involved in a number of occult organizations, and published a number of books on occult subjects, including works on the Rosicrucians. He was disliked and distrusted by HPB. Cf. Collected Works of H.P. Blavatsky, VIII:439-57; Eek, 1965:596-612; an obituary in The Theosophist, October, 1912:119. See also Hartmann's "An Autobiography of Dr Franz Hartmann", in The Occult Review, January, 1908.
12. *How Theosophy Came to Me, 1930:126-7
13. During modern conventions palm huts and halls are also constructed to house the great number of delegates who attend; the more primitive accommodation is reserved for the Indian members, whilst the Europeans stay in the permanent buildings.
14. Ransom, 1936:206
15. T Subba Row (also spelt Rao) (1856-1890) was an Indian lawyer, whose interest in the occult had been stimulated by a meeting with HPB in 1882, although he subsequently broke with her over certain esoteric teachings. He was registrar of the High Court of Baroda. Cf. Eek, 1965:661-73; "T. Subba Rao" in The Path, July, 1893:102-3. See Chapter 7. Damodar K. Mavalankar (1857-?) was a Brahmin who served the TS as Recording Secretary 1882-5 and as Treasurer 1883. He claimed to have visited his Master's ashram in 1883 to undergo training, and a number of phenomena were said to have occurred in his presence. He left Adyar in February, 1885, at the instruction of his Master to travel to Tibet; he was never seen again and a number of stories circulated about his ultimate fate. Cf. Eek, 1965; Eek, 1940; Meade, 1980:207, 342.
16. Cf. Ransom, 1935:206
17. *How Theosophy Came to Me, 1930:122-3
20. Thebaw or Thibaw reigned 1878-1865; the British declared him to be a tyrant, and popularized this view as justification for the war they declared on Burma in 1885. This lasted only a week, but removed the King. Cf. G.E. Harvey, British Rule in Burma 1824-1942, Faber, London, 1946; John F. Cody, A History of Modern Burma, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1960:111-121; and Maung Htin Aung, A History of Burma, Columbia University Press, 1967:252-64.
21. Olcott developed an interest in Mesmerism prior to his contact with Theosophy, and used Mesmerism as a means of healing during his lecture tours. For Mesmerism, cf. Fodor, 1966:239-41; Campbell, 1980:13-4; Webb, 1971:8-10; and Frank Podmore, From Mesmer to Christian Science, University Books, NY, 1963.
22. For HPB's departure from India, cf. Meade, 1980:260-281; Ransom, 1938:215-23; Ryan, 1975:204-13; and H.P. Blavatsky, "Why I do not return to India", in The
Theosophist, January, 1933.
23. *How Theosophy Came to Me, 1930:149
24. For the disappearance of Damodar, cf. Eek, 1965:360-1
Chapter 7: Notes
1. The position of Recording Secretary was effectively, that of administrator of the Society's business. It was distinct from the office of Corresponding Secretary which was held by HPB (1875-1891), and which, after her death, was never filled again. The Recording Secretaries of the Society around this time were:
1882-1885 - Damodar K Mavalankar
1885 - S. Krishnaswami; C.W. Leadbeater; A.J. Cooper-Oakley; T. Vijayaraghava Charlu
1886-1887 - T. Vijayaraghava Charlu; A.J. Cooper-Oakley; C.W. Leadbeater
1888 - C.W. Leadbeater; W.Q. Judge; Archibald Keightley; Richard Hare; T. Vijayaraghava Charlu (Jinarajadasa, 1925:254)
The Theosophist, the international journal of the TS, was first published on October 1st, 1879 as "a 32-page royal 4to, monthly journal, of great merit - the organ of the Theosophical Society", entitled "The Theosophist, A Monthly Journal devoted to Oriental Philosophy, Art, Literature and Occultism. Conducted by H.P. Blavatsky". Cf. Ransom, 1938:134-5, and Jinarajadasa, 1925:43. The Theosophist office managed the publication of the journal, the distribution of literature, and, until the Theosophical Publishing House took over, the publication of pamphlets on Theosophy.
2. *How Theosophy Came to Me, 1930:130-1
3. Kundalini (from the Sanskrit, "coiled") is said
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to be a subtle psychic energy focussed in the psychic centre (chakra, from the Sanskrit "wheel'") at the base of the spine. This "sacred serpent fire", which, in occult development, is believed to move up the spine until it reaches the chakra at the top of the head (sahasra). In true occult training this leads to great psychic powers (siddhis, from the Sanskrit, "power") and illumination. "The latent force of kundalini is closely connected with occult development and with many kinds of practical magic, but any attempt to awaken it or use it without the supervision of a competent teacher is fraught with serious dangers." (*Some Glimpses of Occultism, 1903:69) The potential power and danger of the development of kundalini has been widely recognized in occultism eastern and western: cf. Benjamin Walker, Encyclopedia of Esoteric Man, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1977:145-6. For traditional Indian views, cf. John Woodroffe, The Serpent Power, Ganesh, Madras, 1953; for a modern Indian view, cf. Gopi Krishna, Kundalini, Shambala, Berkeley, Calif., 1970; and for Theosophical views, cf. *The Chakras, 1927 and Arundale, 1947.
4. *How Theosophy Came to Me, 1930:131-2
6. Pythagorus (c. 582-500BC) was said by Leadbeater to have been a Master, and to have taught the "Ancient Wisdom".
7. *How Theosophy Came to Me, 1930:133-4
8. *Talks on the Path of Occultism, vol. III, 1931:843
9. Biographical material on Subba Row is found in the "Appreciation" by S. Subramanien, in T. Subba Row, The Philosophy of the Bhagavad Gita, TPH, Adyar, 1921. Olcott's obituary of him is in The Theosophist, July, 1890, and is reprinted in Subba Row, A Collection of Esoteric Writings, Bombay Theosophical Publications Fund, Bombay, 1910. Cf. Olcott's Old Diary Leaves, 4th series, 1910, chapter xiii.
10. Cf. Ryan, 1975:214-221; Ransom, 1938:246-7; Theosophical Movement 1925:137-8, 403; Campbell, 1980:40; Meade, 1980: 381; and Eek, 1965:114-6.
11. Cf. Subba Row, 1910, 1918, 1921
12. The Bhagavad Gita attracted considerable attention fron Theosophical writers: cf. Eric J. Sharpe, "The Early Theosophists and the Interpretation of the
--- 977 ---
Bhagavad Gita", in Theosophy in Australia, September, 1979:50-57.
13. *How Theosophy Came to Me, 1930:134
14. Subba Row's teachings differ from those of HPB, and Leadbeater's differ from both of them an a number of basic doctrines - for example, the existence of of a personal deity, the occult constitution of man, the requirements of occult training and the occult history of the solar system. No published study of differences between Leadbeater and Subba Row exists. Cf. Hugh Shearman, "Theosophical ontologies", in The Theosophist, October, 1971.
15. Correspondence between Leadbeater, Olcott and Sinnett is held in the Archives of the TS at Adyar; the author had access to it during his research at Adyar in 1979. Although there are some copies of letters from Leadbeater, the bulk of the material is letters received by Leadbeater from Olcott and Sinnett. The contents of these make it relatively easy to determine what was said in the letters from Leadbeater to which they were replies.
16. Cf. Sinnett, 1922:95, together with letters from Sinnett to Leadbeater, TS Archives, Adyar
17. Letters from Olcott to Leadbeater, TS Archives, Adyar
18. For the Buddhist TS, cf. Jinarajadasa, 1925:163 and Ransom, 1938:259
19. The Smaller Buddhist Catechism, "Approved and Recommended for the Instruction of Buddhist Children by H. Sumangala, Pradhana Nayaka Thera, High Priest of Adam's Peak and of the Western and Southern provinces of Ceylon, Principal of Vudyodaya College for Buddhist Monks", was published in two parts in 1889: the first part sold 23,000 copies through 13 editions, and the second 16,000 through -?- editions, by the time it was reprinted in a single volume edition of 5,000 copies by the Buddhist Theosophical Society in Columbo in 1902. For a brief account of Leadbeater's work for Buddhism in Ceylon, and his compilation of the shorter Buddhist catechism, which was translated into Sinhala by Anagarika Dharmapala, cf. Guruge, 1965:702-4.
20. For the background to Buddhism in Ceylon at this time, cf. Kitsiri Malalgoda, 1973.
21. The K.H. Letters to C.W. Leadbeater, 1943:90. A
Theosophist who undertook research into Leadbeater's life and work in Ceylon commented: "For him the physical surroundings were uncongenial, to put it mildly. He was looked upon as a pariah by the British community (and authorities) and obliged to live 'in exile' and consort only with those he considered racially (and 'socially') inferior, and whose language he did not speak or understand." (Rex Henry, letter to the author, February 11, 1980)
22. The K.H. Letters to C.W. Leadbeater, 1943:90
25. ibid:90; cf. Meade, 1980:445
26. Leadbeater's correspondence from HPB and Mrs Sinnett is in the TS Archives at Adyar, where the author had access to it in 1979.
27. Dharmapala, a Buddhist monk, solicited funds from his friends to finance the purchase of English type from Madras, and The Buddhist began in December, 1883; it was
issued as a supplement to the Singhalese paper, The Sandarese. Cf. Guruge, 1965:704
28. The Buddhist, volume I (1888-9)
29. Barker (Ed), 1925:334
30. The Buddhist, vol I, No.22:171
31. Research by a lawyer in Colombo into this incident was commissioned by a member of the TS, Rex Henry, and both documentary sources and interviews with local people were used to provide an account: correspondence from Rex Henry to the author, February 11, 1980.
33. Today Ananda College, still on its original site in Marandana Road, has some 6,000 students and is the most important institution of its kind in what is now Sri Lanka. Portraits of the Principals in its hall include those of Leadbeater, and his pupil, Fritz Kunz (1888-1972) who led the College during the first World War.
34. See chapter 1.
35. Jinarajadasa, 1969:72-6
36. Cf. *Messages from the Unseen, 1931
37. Sinnett, 1921:111
38. Jinarajadasa, 1969:74
40. Correspondence from Olcott to Leadbeater, TS Archives, Adyar.
41. Cf. Meade, 1960:444-5
43. For George Arundale, cf. Personal Memories of G.S. Arundale, TPH, London, 1967; International Theosophical Yearbook, TPH, Adyar, 1937: 183-4; K.P. Sen (Ed.), Dictionary of National Biography, Institute for Historical Studies, Calcutta, 1972:71-2; and G.S. Arundale, 1940.
44. Arundale, 1940:11-12
45. That Leadbeater held strong prejudices against coloured people is confirmed both by Olcott's letter to him (note 40 above) and also by statements by former pupils of Leadbeater's, as indeed also by his writings on the occult aspects of evolution which imply that the Aryan (by which he generally means "white") race possesses a superiority over others. There were rare exceptions to this general prejudice - Jinarajadasa was one, Krishnamurti was to be another.
46. Cf. Barker (Ed.), 1923. For Sinnett's differences with HPB, cf: Meade, 1980:286, 444; Theosophical Movement, 1925:303; Campbell, 1980:86-7; Kuhn, 1939:310; Ransom, 1938:251; Ryan, 1975:237-9; and Theosophical Notes, November, 1955:1-17, April, 1956:7-17, June, 1956:9-11, and January, 1957:15-22.
47. K.H. Letters to C.W. Leadbeater, 1943:74
48. Sinnett, 1922:111
49. As suggested by Meade, 1980:444
50. Cf. Transactions of the London Lodge of the Theosophical Society, Numbers 1-13, June, 1884 to August, 1887.
51. Sinnett, 1922:111. The London office of The
Pioneer was established in 1877[?] with Sinnett in charge, but was eventually taken over by the former owner of the newspaper, and both Sinnett and Leadbeater lost their jobs. Cf. Eek, 1965:280-1.
52. For HPB's Esoteric Section, cf: Theosophical Movement, 1925:144-77; Campbell, 1980:98-9; Kuhn, 1939:184-6; Ransom, 1938:251-2; Ryan, 1975: 245, 264-6; Theosophical Notes, July, 1959:4-7; Meade, 1980:408, 410-11. For HPB's esoteric teachings, cf. Collected Works of H.P. Blavatsky, volume XII. For HPB's reference to Leadbeater as "W.C.", see Meade, 1980:445.
53. Sinnett initially used Miss Laura Holloway for mediumistic communication with KH (Sinnett, 1922:95) but was attracted by Leadbeater's "wonderful clairvoyant faculties" (Ibid:111), the origins of which he did not know.
54. Leadbeater's teachings confirmed those given out by Sinnett in his Esoteric Buddhism (1884). The simplest example of a conflict between the teachings of HPB and those of Sinnett-Leadbeater is that relating to the role of the planets Mercury and Mars; Leadbeater and Sinnett said that they were part of the "earth chain" of evolution, and Blavatsky said they were not. Both sides claimed the Master KH as their source. Cf. Leechman, n.d.:9, and Thomas, n.d.:14-15.
55. Cf. Cleather, 1922:68-70, and Eirenicon, Spring 1961, No. 138.
56. K.H. Letters to C.W. Leadbeater, 1943:68-9
57. Jinarajadasa, 1908:83
59. Nethercot, 1963:341
Chapter 8: Notes
1. The Hall of Science was a popular centre of Secularism and Freethought in which all manner of (then) controversial topics were hotly debated. Cf. Smith, 1967:33, 34, 39. In 1872, Charles Bradlaugh and the eccentric
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monk, Fr Ignatius of Llanthony (Joseph Leicester Lynne, 1837-1908) engaged in a debate on "Is Jesus Christ an Historical Reality?" at the Hall. It was packed, and amongst the listeners was Annie Besant. Cf. Arthur Calder-Marshall, The Enthusiast, Faber & Faber, London, 1962:207 and Donald Attwater, Father Ignatius of Llanthony, Cassell & Co, London, 1931:113.
2. For biographical material on Annie Besant, cf. Nethercot, 1961 and 1963; Williams, 1931; Besterman, 1924; West, 1927; Prakasa, 1941; Jinarajadasa, 1971; Bright, 1936; and her own Annie Besant. An Autobiography, 1927. For a bibliography of her writings in her pre- and early Theosophical period, cf. Besterman, 1924.
3. For the Freethought movement generally, cf. Smith, 1967; Susan Budd, Varieties of Unbelief. Atheists and Agnostics in English Society, 1850-1960, Heinemann, London, 1977; Edward Royle, Victorian Infidels. The Origins of the British Secularist Movement, 1791-1866, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1974; and Edward Royle, Radicals, Secularists and Republicans. Popular Freethought in Britain 1866-1915, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1980. For Annie Besant's involvement in Freethought, cf. Nethercot, 1963. With her conversion to Theosophy, Mrs Besant seemed to abandon - at least as far as Theosophy and Leadbeater were concerned - the critical intellectual approach by which she had been characterized since the time she abandoned Christianity. Leadbeater, although he seems to have dabbled on the fringes of Freethought, was essentially a person who was attracted to dogma, and who liked to refer to science, religion and occultism alike in terms which suggested that a definitive answer existed to every question. Mrs Besant's independent thinking was totally subsumed in Leadbeater's dogmatism, which showed no sign of being influenced by her critical intellect.
4. The Fabian Society was established in London in 1884 and was committed to the "inevitability of gradualness" in the "permeation" of existing institutions in the implementation of socialist ideals; prominent members included George Bernard Shaw, H.G. Wells, Sydney and Beatrice Webb. Cf. George Lichtheim, A Short History of Socialism, Fontana, London, 1980:201-217. For Annie Besant's Freethought, Secularist and Socialist career, cf. Nethercot, 1961. Mrs Besant and Charles Bradlaugh were portrayed in A.W. Pinero's play, "The Notorious Mrs Ebbsmith" in which the heroine, very obviously the militant socialist Mrs Besant, hurls a Bible into a lighted stove, then retrieves it and disfigures herself as a result. It was first performed in
March, 1895, and its sensationalist approach infuriated George Bernard Shaw. Although HPB found socialism, at least in theory, appealing, Leadbeater was totally repelled by it, and seems to have to a large degree stifled Mrs Besant's socialist inclinations, in part by drawing her attention to the fact that the world was, on the inner planes, ruled by a strict "monarchy", which was (or should be) reflected in earthly monarchical systems.
5. William T. Stead (1849-1912) had an interest both in journalism and in occultism. For his occult interests, cf. Nethercot, 1963:164-8 and Fodor, 1966:367-69.
6. Smith, 1967:156
7. Dr Archibald Keightley (1859-1930) joined the TS is 1884 and became a close associate of HPB, helping to edit The Secret Doctrine. He was General Secretary of the TS in England, 1888-90. He broke from the Adyar-based TS after HPB's death, following W.Q. Judge in 1895. Cf . Collected Works of H.P. Blavatsky, IX:427-32, and "Archibald Keightley", in The Path, September, 1893:177-8. His nephew, Bertram Keightley (1860-1945), MA (Cantab.), also joined the TS in 1884; he was a mathematician with an interest in Mesmerism. He also helped in the editing of The Secret Doctrine, and was sent by HPB to found the Indian Section of the TS, of which he was first General Secretary. Cf. The Collected Works of H.P. Blavatsky, IX:432-5 and "Bertram Keightley", in The Path, August, 1893:143-4. The Countess Wachmeister (1839-1910) was the widow of the Swedish and Norwegian Minister to London, and was converted to Theosophy from spiritualism in 1881. She was a close friend and supporter of HPB, and toured the USA and Australia (1896) lecturing on Theosophy. Cf. The Collected Works of H.P. Blavatsky, II:530-1, VI:448; "Countess Wachmeister" in The Path, November, 1893:246-7; and Annie Besant, "Theosophical Worthies: The Countess Wachmeister" in The Theosophist, March, 1911:973-5. George Robert Stowe Mead (1863-1933), M.A. (Cantab.), was HPB's secretary during the writing of The Secret Doctrine, and worked on its editing. He published numerous works on Christianity and Gnosticism - for example, Did Jesus hive 100BC?, TPS, London, 1903. Mead broke with the Adyar-based TS in 1908 over later controversies centering on Leadbeater, and formed his own Quest Society, with headquarters in London, of which George Bernard Shaw's wife, Charlotte, was a member. After the Quest Society was disbanded he devoted himself to spiritualism. He was General Secretary of the European Section of the TS, 1890, and General Secretary of the British Section, 1891-8. Cf. "G.R.S. Mead", in The Path, January, 1894:305-6. Claude Falls Wright was an Irishman,
friend of the poet W.B. Yeats, and founder in 1885 of the Dublin Hermetic Society. In 1895 he broke with the Adyar-based TS and followed W.Q. Judge. Walter Gorn Old (1364-1929) better known as the extremely successful astrologer "Sepharial", was Recording Secretary and Treasurer of the TS 1893, and General Secretary for England, 1890-91. In 1895 he provoked violent controversy in the TS by publishing confidential material on the Judge case in the Westminster Gazette. Emily Kislingbury was the first secretary of the British Theosophical Society, 1878. She had originally been a spiritualist, and Secretary of the British National Association of Spiritualists; she was converted to Theosophy when she went to America to personally investigate HPB's phenomena. James Morgan Pryse (1859-1942) was an American, the son of a Welsh Presbyterian minister in Ohio, who came to London to manage the Theosophical printing press. He established the TS press in Ireland in 1894 to produce The Irish Theosophist. He had a great influence on the Irish poet "A.E." (George Russell), and taught him the occult methods whereby "A.E." began to see the visions which he incorporated into his paintings and his poetry. Cf. Webb, 1971:111. Pryse had a great interest in esoteric Christianity, believing that the Christian scriptures could be "restored" to their original meaning: he attempted this restoration in a number of volumes, including The Apoalypse Unveiled (1910) and The Restored New Testament (1914).
8. For HPB's funeral, cf. Meade, 1980:455-6.
9. William Quan Judge (1851-1896) was an attorney who met HPB in New York in 1874, and was one of the original group which established the TS in 1875. He was Vice-President, 1888-1895, when he separated from the Adyar-based TS over a controversy which will be outlined later in this chapter. For Judge, cf. Eek, 1965:101-23; Campbell, 1930:103-11, 132-3, and W.Q. Judge, Echoes of the Orient, vol. I, Pt Loma Publications, San Diego, 1975.
10. The Vahan (Sanskrit, "vehicle") was begun in December, 1890, to meet the need of inquirers, and continued until 1921; "Questions and Answers" were a notable feature of each issue.
11. There is a long tradition in occultism of another, parallel world to the physical world, and of a parallel body to man's physical body; this may be equated with the concepts of "soul" or "spirit" in religious belief. There is often a distinction between the immortal element in man, and some sort of non-physical (or asomatic) element which can operate out of the physical body but which, generally, is very like that body. This distinction is made,
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for example, in ancient Egyptian religion in the concepts of the ka and the ba, by the Creeks with the concepts of psyche and nous, and in some Hindu traditions with atman and jiva. It has long been assumed that unconscious functioning in the "astral body" on the astral plane is an integral part of life - it may, for example, be used to explain dreams - but that through occult training the astral body can be "projected" at will, with conscious memory being retained. Cf. Walker, 1977:6-13. For Theosophical beliefs, cf. Powell, 1925 and 1927, both of which are largely compilations of Leadbeater's teachings. For western traditions, cf. Mead, 1919. For a general survey, cf. Benjamin Walker, Beyond the Body: The Human Double and the Astral Planes, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1974.
12. *The Astral Plane, 1970:xiv
13. The models of the earth were consulted clairvoyantly by Leadbeater when he drew the maps for W.W. Scott-Elliot's The Story of Atlantis. A Geographical Historical and Ethnological Sketch, TPS, London, 1896. In the Preface the author notes that access had been gained to "some maps and other records physically preserved from the remote periods concerned" (p. ix) but no further information was given lest the credibility of the book be diminished. For a summary of Scott-Elliot's work, cf, L. Sprague de Camp, Lost Continents, Ballantine Books, New York, 1970:51-72. W. Williamson Scott-Elliot joined the TS in 1890. He later wrote a volume on Lemuria, and both works were re-published as The Story of Atlantis and Lost Lemuria, TPH, London, 1925.
14. *The Astral Plane, 1970:xvii
16. For an account of the process of disintegration and re-materialization, see *The Astral Plane, 1970:166-70
17. The Theosophical Manual series included The Seven Principles of Man (1892), Reincarnation (1892), Death - And After (1843), Karma (1895), and Man and His Bodies (1896) by Mrs Besant, and The Astral Plane (1895) and The Devachanic Plane (1896) by Leadbeater; they all remain in print in modern editions.
18. *The Astral Plane, 1970:12
20. Reincarnation, as a general principle, was not
taught in Isis Unveiled (1886), but is taught in The Secret Doctrine (1888). For general studies of reincarnation, cf. J. Head and S.L. Cranston, Reincarnation: An East-West Anthology, Julian Press, New York, 1961.
21. *A Textbook of Theosophy, 1971:97
22. *Clairvoyance, 1903:102
23. The concept of Akashic Records (from the Sanskrit, akasha, an all-pervading medium similar to the ether of 19th century physics) has been widespread in occultism. Leadbeater and other Theosophists claimed access to them, as did Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925), originally a Theosophist who broke from the TS to found the Anthroposophical Society, who wrote a vast range of literature based on his explorations of the Akashic Records. cf. Geoffrey Ahern, Sun at Midnight, Aquarian press, Wellingborough, 1984. In more recent times, the American Edgar Cayce (1877-1945) popularized the idea: cf. J. Stearns, Edgar Cayce - The Sleeping Prophet, Doubleday, New York, 1967. Leadbeater used the akashic Records to "look up" the history of the solar system and the planet, the history of various civilizations and religions, and the past lives of individuals.
24. John Varley (1850-1933) was an English painter, the grandson of the eminent English water colour artist, John Varley (1778-1842). Varley and his wife, Isabella (an aunt of the poet W.B. Yeats), joined the TS and became part of HPB's Inner Circle in London in 1883-4. Cf. *The Soul's Growth Through Reincarnation. I and II. Lives of Erato and Spica, 1976:10-12. Around the turn of the century popular anthropology was greatly concerned with the concept of race and races, and with charting the origin and progression of different races and their civilizations. Cf. Ashley Mont-?-, Man's Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallacy of Race, World Publishing Company, New York, 1964:23-62. The sort of popular contemporary work which appears to have influenced Leadbeater's thought on race included Edward Tylor's Anthropology (2 vols., Watts and Co., London, 1930). However, Leadbeater was less directly influenced by contemporary currents in thought than he was indirectly through what was asked of him by his colleagues. For example, Jinarajadasa organized and structured Leadbeater material on race (just as he did with the material on chemistry) - see Jinarajadasa, 1928:25-40, which includes charts of different races and photographs of typical members of them.
25. *Clairvoyance, 1903:117
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27. *The Lives of Erato and Spica, 1941:13
28. Cf. *Clairvoyance, 1903, chapter VII.
29. *The Lives of Erato and Spica, 1941:21
31. According to Jinarajadasa in a footnote to the second edition of *The Lives of Erato and Spica, 1949.
32. The Devachanic plane (in later Theosophical writings, the Mental Plane) is the "heaven world", a place of the "highest spiritual bliss" to which the individual goes after death, having passed through the "purgatory" (Karma Loka) of the astral plane. Cf. *The Devachanic Plane, 1896
33. *The Lives of Errato and Spica, 1941:24
34. *Clairvoyance, 1903:120
35. Details of Life XI in Egypt from 5,879 BC to 5,804 BC in *The Lives of Erato and Spica, 1941:57-65
37. The lives of Colonel Olcott were investigated, and published as *The Soul's Growth Through Reincarnation. The Lives of Ulysses, Abel, Arcor and Vale; Olcott was Ulysses. The Very Reverend Monsignor Arthur A. Wells, LL.D., was an ex-Carthusian and ex-Franciscan priest, who left the Roman Catholic Church about three years after (secretly) becoming a Theosophist, and served as general Secretary of the British Section, 1900-1901. He left the TS after the controversy over Leadbeater in 1906. Cf. *The Lives of Ulysses, Abel Arcor and Vale, 1950:22-5. Basil Hodgson-Smith (1887-1929) was the son of the President of the Harrogate Lodge of the TS, Alfred Hodgson-Smith (1847-1935). Basil met Leadbeater when he was 9 years old, and, in later years, toured the world with him. He appears as the hero of *Invisible Helpers, assisting Leadbeater in world on the astral plane, under the pseudonym of "Cyril".
38. The precise details and date of Annie Besant's acquisition of psychic powers remain uncertain. Arthur Nethercot (1963:49) notes that the first published reference occurs in TS journals in 1895 in articles reporting a joint
investigation by Leadbeater and Besant into "the conditions of the Heaven world". In a letter to Francesca Arundale on August 25, 1895, Leadbeater notes that Mrs Besant achieved "continuous astral vision" somewhere around August 16th to 21st that year whilst at Box Hill, Surry, with Bertram Keightley and Leadbeater: " ...Mrs Besant learnt to use astral vision which is not only a never ceasing delight to her, but a great help to me, as I now have another person to help check my recollections of things. She plunged into it all with the greatest ardour, and we made some very interesting investigations together, the results of which will no doubt materialize themselves in the form of articles or papers." The Theosophist, October, 1932:12. Ransom (19313:315) reports that during August of 1895 Mrs Besant and Leadbeater "retired to the country in England, to pursue, with the assistance of the Masters and H. P. B., the development of Mrs Besant's powers of astral and inner vision."
39. For details of the separation of W.Q. Judge and most of the TS in America from the Adyar-based TS. cf. Ransom, 1933:297-315 and Jinarajadasa, 1925:131-141 (for the Adyar viewpoint); Ryan, 1975:314-31 and The Theosophical Movement, 1925:425-652 (for the viewpoint of those who followed Judge). Amongst those who followed Judge was the Irish mystical poet, "A.E." (George Russell) who later denounced Leadbeater as a "bad man", and declared that Annie Besant had no spiritual insight of her own until she came under Leadbeater's control, being hypnotized by him into seeing whatever he wished.
40. Cf. Brooks, 1914a; he here dates his stay with Leadbeater as June and July, 1900, but is mistaken. Brooks was later a tutor to Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964), and persuaded him, when a young man, to join the TS.
41. For Brooks attacks and revelations, cf. My Resignation (nd, but probably 1914), The Theosophical Society and Its Esoteric Bogeydom (1914a), and Neotheosophy Exposed (1914b), all published by the Vyasashrama Bookshop, Madras.
42. For Bertram Keightley (1860-1945), see note 7 above.
43. Brooks, 1914a:74
44. *The Inner Life, Vol. 1, 1967:265-85
45. *The Astral Plane was first published by the TPS, London, 1895; it reached its 5th (revised) edition in 1905.
A revised and enlarged edition was published by the TPH, Adyar, in 1933, and this had reached its 8th edition by 1972. *The Devachanic Plane or The Heaven World, Its Characteristics and Inhabitants, was first published by the TPS, London, 1896, and had reached its 3rd edition by 1909. It was in its 7th edition, published by the TPH, Adyar, in 1971.
46. *The Astral Plane, 1970:xxi
47. *The Devachanic Plane, 1895:52-3
48. *Our Relation to Children, 1947:1
52. Basil Hodgson-Smith remained with Leadbeater until he began preparing to enter Oxford; he completed his BA in 1913, and obtained his MA in 1919. He joined the Army in 1914, was seriously wounded and became a prisoner of war until 1918. He was married in 1919, and died in 1929.
53. The Lotus Circle had been established in New York in 1392 by Herbert Whyte (1878-1917), who also founded the Order of the Round Table, which more or less grew out of the Lotus Circle as an order of chivalry for young people.
Chapter 9: Notes
1. The Hon. Jacob Bright, MP, had been a Privy Councillor under Queen Victoria. His wife, Ursula [d.1915], was a close friend and associate of Annie Besant, and a pioneer of Co-Masonry in England. Rai Bahadur Dr Gyanendra Nath Chakravarti [1863-1936], MA, DS, DLitt, LLD, ISO, helped Mrs Besant to establish the Central Hindu College, 1898-99. He was a Professor of Mathematics and Physical Science at Allahabad University. He represented the Indian Section of the TS at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago, September, 1893.
2. Nethercot, 1963:38. For Chakravarti's influence on Mrs Besant, cf. The Theosophical Movement, 1925:443-8, 452-4; Kuhn, 1939:311-2, 317-8; Nethercot, 1963:27-9, 38-9; Ransom, 1938:305, 308; Ryan, 1975:319-21; and Theosophical
Notes, January, 1958:2-9, February, 1958:1-9, March, 1958:4-5, and December, 1959:7-10.
3. The Doctrine of the Heart. Extracts from Hindu Letters with a Foreword by Annie Besant, TPS, London, 1899, Lotus Leaf Series No. 4
4. Dr Bhagavan Das [1869-?], BA, MA, DLitt, was to be associated with Annie Besant in her educational and political work in India. His published works include The Science of Social Organization, The Science of Peace, and The Science of The Emotions, all based on traditional Sanskrit texts. Cf. Dictionary of National Biography, K.P. Sen (Ed), Institute of Historical Studies, Calcutta, 1972, Vol. 1:156-6
5. From a letter to T.H. Martyn of Sydney, quoted in Cleather, 1922:56
6. From a letter from Shaw to the editor of The Freethinker, quoted in Smith, 1967:161
7. For details of the "leading men", cf. Nethercot 1961 and 1963.
8. Miss Annie J. Willson (?-1937) joined the TS in London in 1884, and became a close friend and confidante of Annie Besant, acting, for more than twenty-five years, as her housekeeper, remaining with her until her death.
9. A good example of spiritualist "correction" of history is The Aquarian Gospel of Jesus the Christ by Levi (De Vorss and Co, Santa Monica, 1972). The book was "transcribed" by Levi H. Dowling (1844-1911) in the early hours of the morning, and first published in 1907. It purports to be a "corrected" life of Jesus, including the "lost" years, based upon the Akashic Records. In general, it accords with Theosophical interpretations of the life and teachings of Jesus. For Swedenborg's "inner" view of history, cf. van Dusen, 1975.
10. *A Textbook of Theosophy, 1971:121-2
11. See a letter from a Master quoted by HPB in The Secret Doctrine, 1888, Vol. 1:188-9
12. Cf. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali (with an interpretation by W.Q. Judge), The Path, New York, 1889, Book III, slokas 39-49; eight siddhis are discussed, including animan, "the superhuman power of becoming as small an atom". For a Theosophical interpretation, cf. I.K.Taimni,
13. *Occult Chemistry. Clairvoyant Observations on the Chemical Elements, 1919:2
16. Cf. Babbitt, 1878. Babbitt's Principles was received in the library of the London TS headquarters in September, 1896; in December of that year Leadbeater delivered a lecture to Blavatsky Lodge (London) on "Atoms and Molecules". Cf. The Vahan, September, 1896?, and December, 1896. Edwin D. Babbitt, MD, LLD, Dean of the College of Fine Forces, claimed to have made his discovery of "the harmonic laws of the universe, the etherico-atomic philosophy of force, chroma chemistry, chroma therapeutics, and the general philosophy of the fine forces" in 1876. He established the College of Fine Forces in New York in 1887 (originally as the New York College of Magnetism), and was also the author of The Philosophy of Cure, Health and Power and Social Upbuilding. The word anu means "atom" in Sanskrit, and is referred to in The Secret Doctrine - see Blavatsky, 1888, vol. 1:356, 362.
17. Cf. *Occult Chemistry. Investigations by Clairvoyant Magnification into the Structure of the Atoms of the Periodic Table and of Some Compounds (the third edition of Occult Chemistry), 1951, edited by Jinarajadasa, and Occult Chemistry Investigations. A Record of the Examination by Clairvoyant Magnification into the Structure of 99
Chemical Elements, by C. Jinarajadasa, TPH, Adyar, 1946. An attempt to relate this to orthodox chemistry is found in The Field of Occult Chemistry (Smith, et al, 1934). For an overview of the material, see Occult Chemistry Re-evaluated, by E. Lester Smith (TPH, Wheaton, 1982). For a discussion of such attempts, see the final chapter of the present work.
18. There was already a tradition of "seeing thoughts" in spiritualism. Dr Hyppolite Baraduc, a noted French psychical researcher, had informed the Acadamie de Medecine in May, 1896, that he had succeeded in photographing thoughts and "psychic photography" - both of the "dead" and of thoughts - became something of a fad amongst the Victorians. Cf. Fodor, 1966:382-4
19. Wilhelm Konrad von Rontgen (1845-1945) was the German scientist who discovered X-Rays in 1895. Hyppolite Baraduc was a noted French psychical researcher and author on semi-scientific occult subjects, who was concerned with
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matters to do with the vital emanations from the human body. Karl von Reichenbach (1788-1869) claimed to have discovered the force - which he called Od - permeating all the universe, and radiating from living things; it could, he claimed, be seen by psychics.
20. *Thought Forms, original edition published by the TPS, London, 1901, with a number of subsequent editions, including a modern paperback American edition. The TPH in America report it as one of their best-sellers ever since it first appeared.
21. See the plates in Baraduc, 1913. For Baraduc, cf. Fodor, 1966:28.
22. For "thought-forms" and "thought-photography" in spiritualism, cf. Fodor, 1965:382-4.
23. *The Christian Creed was first published by the TPS, London, in 1899; Leadbeater had been engaged in research into Christian origins with G.R.S. Mead, some of the results of which appear in Mead's The Gospels and the Gospel (1902) and Did Jesus Live 100 BC? (1903).
24. Cf. Esoteric Christianity by Annie Besant, TPS, London, 1898?.
25. The relationship of Theosophy to Christianity was never straightforward: HPB seemed strongly opposed to the Churches, and proclaimed Buddhism the closest of all religions to Truth. For Blavatsky on Jesus, cf. her "The Esoteric Character of the Gospels", published in various places but also included in her Studies in Occultism (Theosophical University Press, Pasadena, nd) Other Theosophical writers varied between outspoken denunciations of Christianity and/or the Churches, and attempts to re-interpret traditional Christianity into Theosophical terms. For the latter approach, cf. Whyte, 1914.
26. *The Christian Creed, 1904:13
28. For Leadbeater's views on Jesus, cf. *The Christian Creed; *The Christian Gnosis, 1983:112-64; *The Inner Life, Vol.1, 1967: 114-119. Jesus, according to Leadbeater, who held distinctly anti-Semitic views, was "of the highest aristocracy of the Jews" with "a tinge of Aryan blood in him." *Inner Life, Vol. I, 1967:119
29. For a history of the TS led by Mrs Tingley, cf.
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Theosophical Movement, 1925:653-687; Campbell, 1980:131 and Greenwalt, 1973.
30. For Jinarajadasa's efforts of systematizing Leadbeater's clairvoyant research, and relating it to contemporary scholarship, cf. Jinarajadasa, 1938 and '47. His own Theosophical textbook is characteristic of his attempts - see Jinarajadasa, 1928. It is obvious that without his efforts none of the work on occult chemistry would have been published.
31. The Golden Chain was a Theosophical movement for children established in the USA by William Walters in 1899; it eventually became associated with the Order of the Round Table. Each child began the day by reciting a pledge which began "I am Link in the Golden Chain of Love that stretches round the World... " The group had a "Chief Link'", and a number of "Links of Honour".
32. For the "Judge Case", cf. Theosophical Movement, 1925:425-52; Campbell, 1980:103-11; Kuhn, 1939:301-20; Ransom, 1935:289-90, 299-308; Nethercot, 1963:36-40; Ryan, 1973:316-22 and Theosophical Notes, February, 1958:1-9; March, 1958:4-15; April, 1958:1-8; May, 1959:1-9; June, 1958:1-7; July, 1958:1-9; February, 1959:1-8; May,1959:14-20; July, 1959:1-9; December, 1959:7-11. For Judge's development of Theosophy, cf. W.Q. Judge, The Ocean of Theosophy, United Lodge of Theosophists, Los Angeles, 1915 and Echoes of the Orient, Point Loma Publications, San Diego, Vol. I 1975, Vol. II 1980.
33. For Katherine Tingley (1847-1929), cf. Theosophical Movement, 1929:653-681; Campbell, 1980:131-30; Kuhn, 1939:320-25; Nethercot, 1963:56-61; Ransom, 1938:320-1; Ryan, 1975:343-54; and Lilian Whiting, Katherine Tingley: Theosophist and Humanitarian, Aryan Theosophical Press, Point Loma, n.d.. The author consulted a vast range of archival material on Mrs Tingley in the collections of the Theosophical Society International, at Pasadena, California, and Point Loma Publications, at San Diego, California.
34. For Mrs Tingley's headquarters at Point Loma, cf. Greenwalt, 1955, and the expanded version of that work, 1978.
35. See chapter 17
36. *Some Glimpses of Occultism, Ancient and Modern, Theosophical Book Concern, Chicago, 1903.
37. Alexander Fullerton (1841-1913) was a graduate of Princeton, who became an Episcopal priest. He was admitted to the Bar in 1877, but never practised law. He joined the TS in 1885, and became Assistant General Secretary of the Society in America, 1888-1895.
38. For Douglas Pettit, see the following chapter.
39. The Theosophist, February, 1903
40. The Theosophist, February, 1904
41. *Man Visible and Invisible, by examples of different types of men as seen by means of trained clairvoyance, originally published by the TPS, London, 1902, remains in print, and is also available in a popular American paperback, with the original illustrations. Together with *The Chakras and *Thought-Forms, it has consistently been one of the American TPH's best-sellers.
42. A. Marque, The Human Aura, author, San Francisco, 1895; a copy of this work bearing Leadbeater's book plate was seen in the Adyar Library.
43. *The Life After Death, 1918:5
44. A letter to Miss R. Kayser, dated December 2, 1933, seen in the TS Archives, at Adyar
45. Jinarajadasa, 1928:5 Theosophy and Theosophists picked up the theme underlying biological evolutionary theory, and applied it more broadly. Far from opposing the theory, as did most churches and churchmen at the time, they saw it as vindicating the "ancient wisdom". For the impact of evolutionary theories on religious belief prior to Darwin, cf. Charles C. Gillispie, Genesis and Geology (Harper and Row, New York, 1959). For the impact of Darwin's theory on Victorian society and religion, cf. William Irvine, Apes, Angels and Victorians (Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1956). The concept of evolution in a broad sense pervades The Secret Doctrine. For a summary of the Theosophical view, see Jinarajadasa, 1928:5-24.
46. The Theosophist, December, 1904
47. For the history of the TS in Australia, cf. Neff, 1943, and International Theosophical Year Book, 1937:56-59.
48. Fritz Kunz (18118-1972) came from a Theosophical family and joined the TS in 1902. He spent many years travelling with Leadbeater. After graduating from the
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University of Wisconsin, he married Dora van Gelder (1905-) in 1927, one of the few female pupils of Leadbeater. The author interviewed Mrs Kunz in Adyar in 1979.
49. Thomas H. Martyn (1860-1924) was an eminent Sydney businessman, and Treasurer of the TS in Sydney. A large amount of material on T.H. Martyn and his role in the TS in Australia was consulted by the author in the collection of John Cooper, Sydney, which had been gathered by him in research for his MA in Religious Studies at the University of Sydney.
50. Cf. Annie Besant, Hints on the Study of the Bhagavad Gita, TPH, Adyar, 1906
51. After the "Judge Case", Annie Besant and Leadbeater speculated which of them would be the centre for the "next storm". It was, she said, a time when a "large number of unadaptable people were then shaken out", hastening the coming of the new sub-race. See "The Theosophical Society and its work", in Adyar Bulletin, November 15, 1913:450.
Chapter 10: Notes
1. Mrs Helen Dennis was the dominant figure in a leading Theosophical family in California; she had been appointed Corresponding Secretary of the ES in America in 1905, the position placing her at the head of the ES in tha country, and making her directly responsible for Mrs Besant, the Outer Head. She was a regular, and intimate, correspondent of Mrs Besant's.
2. From a copy of the original in the author's possession. The letter has also been quoted in a number of published works, including Editor of "Justice", 1918. Most of the original documents, or copies of them, are in the TS Archives at Adyar, where they were consulted by the author in 1979. In addition, copies of documents are also held, an have been consulted, in the archives of the Theosophical Society International at Pasadena, California, and of Point Loma Publications, in San Diego, California. In later years Mrs Dennis gave a large collection of the documents in the "Leadbeater Case" to the Harper Library of the University of Chicago, and made a gift of copies of the documents, together with published material, to the Special Collection Department of Columbia University, New York, where they were consulted by the author in 1982. Much of the material was
also published in the Theosophic Voice. [AR, TSI, PL]
6. There was a strange irony in Alex Fullerton (1841-1913) being indignant at the charges against Leadbeater. In February, 1910, he was charged with sending obscene letters to Douglas Pettit, and, after being judged unbalanced, was committed to an institution for the insane. The charges had been laid through the intervention of Mrs Katherine Tingley, who had become obsessed with what she saw as an extraordinary amount of "unnatural vice" associated with the Adyar-based TS. Leadbeater, in his usual way, had dealt with all his American critics in a letter to Mrs Besant on October 9, 1906 when he concluded: "There is a certain unscrupulousness and want of honour in the American character which may be a troublesome factor in the new sub-race; and it seems to need only a little stress to bring it to the surface even in the better class of Americans." (Quoted in Editor of "Justice'", 1918:171)
7. From a copy in the possession of the author; also quoted in Editor of "Justice", 1918.
10. Quoted in Brooks, 1914, from a sworn statement submitted as evidence in C.C. Number 1778, in Madras, 1913 (the Krishnamurti custody case), and also published in the Hindu, April 14, 1913. Copies also seen in the American collections referred to in note 2 above. Douglas Pettit subsequently made an even more incriminating statement in 1911 when Mrs Tingley interviewed him about his relationship with Leadbeater. He then swore that he and Leadbeater had actually had sexual relations, that Rigel and Nevers (two others boys named in the case) had also had sexual relations with Leadbeater, and that Leadbeater told them the Masters preferred this form of sexual relationship to heterosexual intercourse. Leadbeater was informed of this statement by Mrs Marie Russak in a letter dated March 1, 1911. She concluded: "One of the black magicians has seized the weak mental state of Douglas." Leadbeater, who did not deny the charges made, replied that he had had problems with all the American boys who were "thrust upon him". Copies of letters seen in the TS Archives at Adyar. [AR]
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11. For a detailed study of the "cypher letter" see the Private Supplement to Brooks, 1914, a copy of which was consulted by the author in an edition of the original work in the library of the Theosophical Society International, at Pasadena, California. Cf. Nethercot, 1963:95-6. [TSI,*]
12. Copies seen in archives referred to in note 2 above. Also quoted in Thomas, n.d.:36.
13. Ibid: also quoted in Nethercot, 1963:96
14. Cf. *The Perfume of Egypt, 1912; the story is found in the book of the sane name, and in it a ghost uses the code to leave a message.
15. Copies seen in archives referred to in note 2 above. Also quoted in Thomas, n.d.:36
16. Theosophic Voice, November 1908-January 1908:91-2
17. None of the members of the Committee, with the exceptions of Olcott, Mead, Sinnett and Keightley, was a notable member of the TS. For accounts of the "trial", cf. Nethercot, 1963:96-7; Ransom, 1938:353-9 and Jinarajadasa, 1923:146-9.
18. Ransom, 1938:359
19. The transcript was, however, quite widely circulated and published in whole or part in a variety of journals and pamphlets. Several. editions of the official transcript were seen in the TS Archives at Adyar, and a copy of a typescript version was obtained by the author in London. A complete transcript was published in the Editor of "Justice", 1918 as Appendix 1. [AR, TSI, PL,*]
20. Quoted in Editor of "Justice", 1918, Appendix 1.
21. Jinarajadasa stated that Leadbeater had taught masturbation to boys when a clergyman in his pre-TS days. Cf. The Theosophist, February, 1927:519. Nethercot, 1961:303, refers to "some innuendoes about a past affair in the life of the Rev. Charles W. Leadbeater" being published in the Freethinker, September, 1888. It proved impossible to locate this reference, even using the resources of the British Library; there seemed to be no such journal, or any with a similar title, around the date referred to.
22. Quoted in Editor of "Justice", 1918, Appendix 1.
23. The only organizations of which Leadbeater was known to have been a member seem unlikely to have been the sources for the "teaching" - a juvenile temperance society, a nature club, a church boys' society, and the Confraternity of the Blessed Sacrament. There was, however, almost a "movement" in the late 19th and early 20th century in Anglo-Catholic, artistic and mystic circles which glorified the sexuality of boys. It took as the title of its philosophy "Uranian". Amongst those identified as "Uranian" were the author John Addington Symonds (1840-1893), the mystical social theorist Edward Carpenter (1844-1929), and the eccentric artist and poet Ralph Nicholas Chubb (1892-1960). In his study of the Uranian poets, Timothy d'Arch Smith (1970) also suggests Fr Ignatius of Llanthony, Bishop Oilloughby, and Leadbeater. For the links with the Church of England, see Hilliard, 1982.
24. Quoted in Editor of "Justice", 1918, Appendix 1
26. Quoted in Ronald Pearsall, Public Purity, Private Shame, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1976:21. Pearsall's study of Victorian attitudes to sexuality provides an interesting background to the Leadbeater case.
27. Ransom, 1934:353
28. Quoted in Editor of "Justice", 1918:131
29. Copies of the correspondence published in Editor of "Justice", 1918.
30. An Inner Group had also existed in HPB's time - cf. Ransom, 1938:252. Mrs Besant's IG was the beginning of a rigid system of hierarchy within the ES, which eventually came to include a number of degrees, and led to a great deal of what Lady Emily Lutyens called "spiritual snobbery".
31. Quoted in Editor of "Justice", 1918:138
32. Copy of the original in the possession of the author. Also quoted in Fussell, 1909:6. [*]
34. Quoted in Editor of "Justice", 1918:154
35. Johan van Manen was one of Leadbeater's young secretaries from about 1906 to 1909, when he became
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assistant director of the Adyar Library. He had joined the TS in 1895, worked as a translator for Olcott, and served as Secretary for the first European convention.
36. In April, 1906, Jinarajadasa circulated a pamphlet in the USA defending Leadbeater, but in fact adding fuel to the fire of Leadbeater's enemies by commenting: "I know that, as a matter of fact, this insinuation [i.e. sodomy] was made by some people in Ceylon while he was in that country between 1885-89. I heard of it when I was a boy of 12, and before I knew Mr Leadbeater. But soon after my acquaintance with him, I understood why the charge was made. He was especially kind to some boys there and helped them always ... there is a truer charge that Mr Leadbeater taught some boys [onanism]. Mr Leadbeater admits it, but deserves to be heard on the matter... " Original pamphlet seen in the TS Archives at Adyar, send quoted in Editor of Justice, 1918:40. [AR]
37. Quoted in Levy, 1919:119
38. For Steiner's growing conflict with TS "orthodoxy", including Leadbeater, cf. Ahern, 1984:89-91.
39. "Glamour" is usually associated with certain powers said to be possessed by elementals or nature-spirits, involving "deception of the senses", "dominating the human will" and "making images and impressing them on others". Of this, Leadbeater said: "The power of glamour is simply that of making a clear, strong mental image, and then projecting that into the mind of another." *The Hidden Side of Things, 1968:108. In later Theosophical history, it was said of people who believed false doctrines, or claimed to possess supernatural gifts which were denied by their critics, that they were "under a glamour". Mrs Besant was thus concerned lest - as her critics were to claim - she had been misled by mental images projected into her mind by Leadbeater. A development of this concept is the theory of kriyashakti, for which see chapter 23.
40. In Theosophical terms - and according to the theory outlined by Leadbeater - it was very easy for an evil person to develop psychic powers, especially through the use of various perverted forms of sexual yoga. An "earthly, sensual, devillish" person could, theoretically, possess even greater occult powers than a saintly Theosophist. Black Magicians, popularly known as "the Blacks", were frequently blamed in TS history throughout Leadbeater's period for all sorts of problems. For early Theosophical theories about "the Blacks", cf. Linton and Hanson, 1973:221 where the "Brothers of the Shadow" are discussed.
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41. Copy seen in the TS Archives at Adyar. [AR]
42. Quoted in Editor of "Justice", 1918:179
43. Amongst the forces Leadbeater was mustering was another rising star of Theosophy, James Ingall Wedgwood (1883-1951), descendant of the famous family of potters. Wedgwood had joined the TS in 1904, giving up training for the ministry of the Church of England. Wedgwood first met Leadbeater at the Hodgson-Smith home in 1906, when they discussed Gregorian plainchant and work on "the other side". During Leadbeater's temporary retirement from the TS Wedgwood also met him in Alsace, and they worked together on clairvoyant research; Wedgwood was impressed when Leadbeater looked up the late Anglo-Catholic Dr F.G. Lee (1832-1902) in the heaven world whilst washing his hands before lunch. Cf. Wedgwood, 1918:21-8.
Chapter 11: Notes
1. Ransom, 1933:361
2. Dr Weller van Hook (1862-1933) was Professor of Surgical Pathology at Chicago College, and later Professor of Surgery at Northwestern University. He served as General Secretary of the TS in America, 1907-12. He was the father of Hubert van Hook, one of Leadbeater's earliest boy pupils, and later claimed to be the only pupil on the physical plane of the Master the Count. Cf. International Theosophical Year Book, 1934:240
3. Some critics referred to Mrs Besant as "Mrs Leadbeater", or, conversely, to Mr Leadbeater as "Mr Besant". One of the more bizarre stories put about was that Annie Besant was actually a man, though given her marriage and two children, this seems improbable. There is no evidence whatever of any sexual relationship between Leadbeater and Mrs Besant, although it is remarkable that Leadbeater's usual dislike of women, especially elderly women, should not have included Mrs Besant.
4. Nethercot, 1963:98
5. Mrs Marie Barnard Russak (1867-1945), known as "Helios", joined the TS in 1906, giving up an operatic career to follow Colonel Olcott, to whom she was private secretary until his death. She also served as secretary to
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Mrs Besant for many years, and was a devoted disciple of Leadbeater. In 1916 she married Henry Hotchener, an eminent American Theosophist who had been secretary to Leadbeater on his American tour. Mrs Russak claimed psychical powers, and wrote of receiving messages from the Masters.
6. The witnesses - Mrs Besant and Mrs Russak - were hardly impartial. They both fervently hoped for the intervention of the Masters to solve the leadership crisis in the TS (that is, the issue of who would succeed Olcott), and they were both fervent disciples of Leadbeater. The "Adyar manifestations", as they came to be known, divided the Society between those who believed, those who doubted, and those who argued that the appearances were the work of Black Magicians. There have been arguments over the objectivity of the manifestations. Could the whole incident have been fabricated, deliberately or unconsciously, by Mrs Besant and/or Mrs Russak? They would have had no great difficulty in persuading the dying Colonel of the presence of the Masters whose advice he was seeking. Others have suggested that the appearance of the Masters was created by thought-forms projected by Leadbeater. For the Adyar manifestations, cf. Meade, 1980:459; Ransom, 1938:366-369; Nethercot, 1963:100-105 and Jinarajadasa, 1925:152.
7. This sentence is curiously ambiguous: it implies that what was wrong with the teachings was that they (1) were made public and (2) offended the standards of the majority of members of the Society. Does this mean that if they had been kept private the Masters would have had no objection?
8. Again, ambiguity. Was Leadbeater to promise not to make the teachings public, or to stop teaching his views at all?
9. Copy of the original seen in the TS Archives, Adyar. Quoted in Editor of "Justice", 1918:192-4. [A, AR]
10. Quoted in Ransom, 1938:367
12. Quoted in Editor of "Justice", 1918:189
14. Letters seen in TS Archives, Adyar [AR]
15. Sir S Subramania Iyer (1842-1924), KCIE, LLD, was Vice Chancellor of Madras University, 1904, and a Judge of
the Madras High Court, 1895-1907, and three times Chief Justice. He was knighted in 1907. He joined the TS in 1882, served as Recording Secretary, 1905-6, and Vice-President, 1907-11. A statue in his memory was erected at Adyar. Cf. International Theosophical Year Book, 1934:238 and K.P. Sen (Ed), Dictionary of National Biography, Institute of Historical Studies, Calcutta, 1972, Vol II:213-5
16. Miss Esther Bright (1868-?) was the daughter of Jacob and Ursula Bright, eminent Theosophists and close friends of Mrs Besant. She joined the TS in 1891, was a pioneer of the Co-Masonic movement, and Mrs Besant's closest friend. Hubert Van Hook (1896-) was the son of Dr Weller van Hook and Dr Anna Whaley van Hook. Known as "Orion" in Leadbeater's investigations into past lives, he initially appeared to have a great Theosophical future, but eventually broke away from the Society.
17. Cf. Jinarajadasa, 1838, for details of these investigations.
18. Ransom, 1938:377
19. The cypher letter led - and still leads - to speculation and apologetics. Leadbeater said only that he did not "recognize it in its present form": did that mean he didn't recognize the text? or that the photographed copy was not the original? Mrs Besant, in her letter to the British Section, said the letter should rank with "the Columb and Pigott letters" (both documents which were used to impute fraud to HPB and which were allegedly fraudulent). She commented that the cypher letter had never been sent to the boy concerned, but then stated that he had replied to it without understanding its meaning. See Theosophical Voice, November, 1908. Leadbeater's critics were not slow to seize on such contradictions. The whole letter and every part of it sounded strange enough, and even without those parts upon which a "foul construction" had been placed it implied strange psychic teachings which the TS had long opposed. Miss Edith Ward, in a circular letter to the British Section, called for a straight answer from Leadbeater: had he written the letter? in whole or in part? Or, if the letter was a forgery, she demanded a full investigation.
20. See chapter 12.
21. Sir Oliver Lodge (1851-1940) was an eminent spiritualist and psychical researcher, in addition to being a notable scientist. He was a member of the Society for Psychical Research. He was deeply interested in the quest
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for aether as a supra-physical element. Aether (derived from
the Latin and Greek word for "upper air") was the mysterious "quintessence", or fifth element, of which the universe beyond the world's four elements (earth, air, fire and water) was composed according to Aristotle. The concept was taken up in both Victorian spiritualism and science and used to refer to a substance underlying all things. Sir Oliver Lodge, notable both as scientist and spiritualist, commented that "ether is now thought of as sustaining, and in some sense constituting, all the phenomena of the visible universe". Man and the Universe, Methuen, London, 1913:161.
22. Quoted in Ransom, 1938:377-8
23. Ibid:377. Amongst the "malcontents" and "independent organizations" were A.P. Sinnett, who resigned is 1908 to form the Eleusinian Society (but returned in 1911) and G.R.S. Mead who resigned in 1908 to form the Quest Society, which continued until 1911.
24. Copies of the original pamphlets were seen in the TS Archives at Adyar. Quoted in Editor of "Justice", 1918:202 [AR]
28. Mrs Besant's Defamation Cases, 1913:9
29. The Theosophic Voice published a reply from Van Hook to the Editor's enquiry about the "inspiration" of his letters. Van Hook stated: "It is true that the letters published over my name in Mrs Holbrook's pamphlet were dictated verbatim by one of the Masters. It is not permitted to give the name." Theosophic Voice, August, 1908.
30. Theosophical Messenger, July, 1908. Cf. "When Mahatmas Disagree" in Theosophic Voice, August, 1909, for an analysis of the contradictions between the views of the Misters given to Olcott, and dictated to Van Hook.
31. Miss Ward, Burrows and Mead (both of whom had been disciples of HPB) had already expressed their hostility to Leadbeater; Whyte and Mrs Sharpe were known friends and supporters of his.
32. The author consulted a large file labelled "Leadbeater case - British pamphlets" in the TS Archives at
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Adyar. Some of the same publications, as well as a number of others, were consulted in the British Library in London, and yet others in the archives of the Theosophical Society International at Pasadena, California. [A, AR, BL, JC, PL, TSI]
33. Original pamphlets consulted in the TS Archives at Adyar; quoted in Editor of "Justice", 1918:246. [A, AR, BL]
36. Original pamphlet consulted in the TS Archives at Adyar: quoted in Editor of "Justice", 1918:258-9 [A, AR, BL]
38. All the members were old friends and known supporters of Leadbeater, some of whom re-appear in Leadbeater's later career.
39. The TS Archives at Adyar include files of pamphlets issued in different countries, including pro-Leadbeater leaflets issued by Sir Subramania Iyer, Mr Hodgson-Smith, and others. The most substantial files are those containing publications issued in England, India and the USA. Leadbeater issued a letter to the ES on July 27, 1906. It is interesting to note that the original draft of Mrs Besant's letter of September 7th, 1908, was corrected and annotated by Leadbeater prior to publication; the original, with Leadbeater's handwritten notes, was seen in the TS Archives at Adyar. Most of the anti-Leadbeater was British, and included pamphlets by Burrows and Mead. [AR]
40. Quoted in Ransom, 1938:380
42. "Presidential Report" in The Theosophist, February, 1909.
43. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:19
44. Emily Lutyens, 1957:191
45. *The Masters and the Path, 1953:226
46. Quoted in Nethercot, 1963:122. One of Leadbeater's most energetic critics, the Australian John M. Prentice, described the return of Leadbeater to Adyar as the
beginning of a "psychic debauch". See Prentice, 1925.
47. For the development of the Adyar Estate, cf. *Adyar. The Home of the Theosophical Society, 1911; Neff, 1934 and Jinarajadasa, 1925:173.
48. *The Inner Life, 1967, Vol. I:vii-viii.
49. For a description of the shrine room, see Codd, 1951:114-5. The shrine room included portraits of HPB, Olcott, and, later Mrs Besant and Leadbeater. The ES members had paid for the construction of the suite of rooms above the library in 1902, and it was completed in 1904. For the portraits of the Masters, cf. Laura Longford, "The Portraits of the Two Masters", in The Theosophist, September, 1948, and Linton and Hanson, 1973:243-4. The author had access to extensive files on the origin and history of both these two portraits and other portraits of Masters in the archives of Point Loma Publications, at San Diego, California, which included research material gathered by Boris de Zirkoff, editor of the H.P. Blavatsky. Collected Writings.
50. Ernest Wood (1883-1965) joined the TS in England in 1902, served Leadbeater as his secretary for many years, and das Recording Secretary of the Society, 1929-1933. He was a prolific writer, and active in educational and scouting work in India. Cf. International Theosophical Year Book, 1934:243, and Wood, 1936.
51. Cf. Jinarajadasa, 1947:5-6
52. The effects of Leadbeater's return were drastic and far-reaching. Although Mrs Besant told the members in her Presidential Report for 1909 that "a year that began with the mutterings of a storm rallying around us, and of threatened ruin" had ended "in unclouded sunshine with the presence of fairest future" (General Report of the Thirty-fourth Anniversary and Convention of the Theosophical Society, 1910:1) 523 members had resigned. Admittedly, this only represented 2.5% of the total membership, but it included some of the most eminent and well-respected leaders, amongst them Mr and Mrs G.R.S. Mead and Mr A.P. Sinnett. 109 members resigned in Holland, 118 in Italy, 86 in the USA, 47 in Australia, and 53 in New Zealand. But the overall effect on membership figures was positive: membership rose from 3,458 in 1909 to 11,108 in 1910. Many movements broke away from the Adyar-based TS in later years as the direct result of Leadbeater's teachings and his role in the Theosophical movement. It remains one of the major issues dividing the movement, and seems unlikely to be resolved since the Adyar TS has committed itself so
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definitely to being pro-Leadbeater that it could hardly withdraw fron this position. E. Pierce Spinks in his Will the Theosophical Movement Disintegrate (1957) lists five
factors dividing the movement: four of them derive directly from Leadbeater, and one of them is Leadbeater.
Chapter 12: Notes
1. Ernest Wood (1883-1965) joined the TS in England in 1901, and spent most of his life as a Theosophical lecturer. He was Leadbeater's secretary for many years, and actually wrote a number of the books published under Leadbeater's name by selecting and compiling material from Leadbeater's talks and articles. He became disillusioned with the TS administration after he was unsuccessful in the presidential election following Mrs Besant's death in 1933. B.P. Wadia, a Parsi from Bombay, was an associate of Mrs Besant in her political work in India; he became disillusioned both with Leadbeater and with the Adyar-based TS, and became an active worker for the United Lodge of Theosophists, an American-based derivative the TS in America established by W.Q. Judge. See Wood, nd.
2. Russell Balfour-Clarke (1885-1982), always known as Dick, joined the TS in England in 1904, and went to India in 1908 at Mrs Besant's invitation. He served as a tutor to Krishnamurti up until World War I. By profession an engineer, he was responsible for many of the improvements on the Adyar Estate, including the electricity supply and the roads. He wrote a series of articles on the "discovery" of Krishnamurti, and these were compiled into a book: see Balfour-Clarke, 1977. The author interviewed him at length at Adyar in 1979, and was given access to his personal archives. He remained a close friend of Krishnamurti until his death.
3. Mary Lutyens, 1975:21
4. For material on Krishmanurti's background derived from his father, cf. Veritas, 1913:18-34. For general background, cf. Mary Lutyens, 1975:1-8.
5. For the Inner Government of the World generally, cf. *The Masters and the Path, 1925; Jinarajadasa, 1922; Besant, 1921.
6. Cf. Jinarajadasa, 1922, chapter 11. Jinarajadasa echoes Leadbeater's teachings in simpler form. A popular
demand for a modern reprint of this Theosophical best-seller was rejected by the TPH in America and Britain because of the racism implicit in the text - e.g. photographs of Australian Aborigines with captions defining them as left-overs from Lemuria. Information received from Dora Kunz, General Secretary of the TS in America, at Adyar, 1979. Leadbeater held distinctly racist views, basing them on his view of the evolution of Man, in which divinely ordered scheme Theosophists of the Aryan race were inevitably at the highest level.
7. For Leadbeater's view of God, see *A Textbook of Theosophy, 1971:9-11
9. An Arhat (from the Sanskrit meaning venerable or perfect) is the ideal of the Theravadan school of Buddhism, one who has attained Nirvana, just as the Bodhisattva (from the Sanskrit meaning one whose essence is wisdom) is the ideal for the Mahayana school. The Bodhisattva is one, who having attained perfection, renounces Nirvana to help humanity.
10. The terms are here used in the sense in which Leadbeater used them; frequently his use of oriental terms disregards their original or their scholarly meaning. For details of the officers and their work, cf. *The Masters and the Path, 1925, part IV.
11. *The Masters and the Path, 1953:325
14. Jinarajadasa, (1940). Elsewhere Jinarajadasa wrote: "The fact that the early part of this century was to see a manifestation of the Bodhisattva was first mentioned by C.W. Leadbeater in London in 1901, at a meeting of esoteric students, which was held by him soon after his return from his first visit to the United States." Jinarajadasa, "The Theory as to World Teachers", in World Theosophy, February, 1931:101.
15. Cf. Jinarajadasa, 1922, chapter 11. The Third Root Race was the Lemurian, and the "remnants" of it were found in what Leadbeater called "Negros", although these included the Australian Aborigines. The Fourth Root Race was the Atlantean; it had as its seven sub-races the Rmoahal, Tlavatli, Toltec, Turanian, Original Semite, Akkadian and
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Mongolian. The Japanese, the Malays and some Chinese were "remnants" of this Root Race. The Fifth Root Race was the Aryan, including as sub-races the Hindu-Egyptian, Aryan-Semitic, Celtic, Teutonic (the present), and the Austral-American (that currently emerging). The seventh sub-race was yet to appear, but it would be from the sixth sub-race that the Seventh Root Race would emerge, and hence the importance of that sub-race as the seed of the new age. It is difficult to equate this scheme with orthodox anthropology.
16. Cf. *Man. Whence How and Whither, 1913, chapters XXII-XXVI, which were also published separately as *The
Beginnings of the Sixth Root Race, 1931.
17. *The Masters and the Path, 1953:40
18. This previously secret material was finally published in *The Masters and the Path, 1925, although it was claimed that the material derived from much earlier teachings of the Masters; this release of secret material was said to be part of the preparation for the Coining. The original ES papers have been consulted by the author in several private collections, including those of John Cooper in Sydney, Mary Lutyens in London, and Point Loma Publications in San Deigo. [C, PL, TSI]
19. Adventist movements at this time included the Catholic Apostolic Church (the "Irvingites"), Jehovah's Witnesses, the "Millerites" (out of which developed a number of other movements, the best known being the Seventh-day Adventist Church), the Agapemonites, and a number of others in the USA, Great Britain and Europe. Cf. Webb, 1971:66-93. For a study of occult fraternities anticipating a Second Coming around this time, see Tillett, 1983.
20. Blavatsky, 1966:71
21. Blavatsky, 1888, vol. 1:384
22. Ibid:470. HPB also suggested that "With the advent of Theosophy the Messiah craze has surely had its day and seen its doom". Lucifer, July, 1890. For an analysis of the differences between HPB and Leadbeater on the Coming of Maitreya, cf. Leechman, n.d.; Thomas, n.d.; Morgan, n.d.; and Eirenicon, No. 138, Spring, 1961.
23. John Yarker (1833-1913), an Englishman, was associated with a range of Masonic and semi-Masonic bodies throughout the world, and wrote extensively on Masonry and related subjects. He conferred a high degree of an Adoptive
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Rite of one of the Masonic Orders under his control to HPB, leading to the later, and mistaken, claims that she was a Freemason - Cf. Jinarajadasa, 1951:27-36. For HPB's contacts with Yarker, cf. Ransom, 1938:99-100, 103.
24. The Royal Order of the Sat B'hai was based on Brahmin mythology and symbolism. It seems to have been founded by an Anglo-Indian in the mid-19th century, and was open to both men and women. HPB and Olcott were honorary members, and so was James Wedgwood, a close associate (in later years) of Leadbeater. The Order was at one time headed by John Yarker, with whom Wedgwood and Mrs Besant later developed Masonic associations. The Order is now defunct. The author had access to a complete set of the rituals of the Order, together with its membership records and archives in London in 1978. For Sat B'hai, cf. Eirenicon, Number 146, Summer, 1963. For Yarker, Cf. King, 1971:96-7, and a (distinctly biased) obituary by Aleister Crowley in The Equinox, Vol. I, No. 10, September, 1913:xix-xxxix.
25. See Hooker, 1980:128; also Mary Lutyens, 1975:12
26. See Mary Lutyens, 1975:12
27. Cf. Ransom, 1938:384
28. Pronounced "Al-kee-ownee", the name given to the incarnating entity which in the present life was Krishnamurti.
29. Nethercot, 1963:141
30. Mary Lutyens, 1975:22
31. *The Masters and the Path, 1953:82-3
36. See the chart of aura colours and their significance in the front of *Man Visible and Invisible, 1902.
37. Hubert Van Hook (1896-?) the son of Dr Weller Van Hook, Leadbeater's chief American defender, became a boy companion to Leadbeater during the American tour, and was
proclaimed by Leadbeater to be the Vehicle for the Coming. He was taken to Europe by Leadbeater, and Mrs Besant, deeply impressed by the boy, persuaded Mrs Van Hook to leave her husband and take the boy to India for special training in fulfilment of his occult destiny. However, by the time he arrived, Leadbeater had found Krishnamurti. Cf. Mary Lutyens, 1975:12
38. Quoted in The Theosophist, June, 1932:240
40. *A Textbook of Theosophy, 1971:126
41. Various private lists of "Star names" circulated within the TS, especially during the hey-day of "the Lives'"; some of these were consulted in the TS Archives and Library at Adyar. In addition, annotations in copies of *The Lives of Alcyone and *Man. Whence, How and Whither in the Adyar library provided additional information, as did material on file in the TS Archives at Adyar. Of the three hundred or so "Star names" that were employed, only about forty were ever published with the corresponding names for this incarnation. Arthur Nethercot, in his research for his biography of Mrs Besant (1963) discovered the identities of over 90; the author's research led to the identification of some 300. See Robertson, 1981. [JC,*]
42. Quoted in The Theosophist, June, 1932:243.
44. Wood, 1947:26-7 and Jinarajadasa, 1953:101
45. Arundale, 1912:4
46. Jinarajadasa suggested that Mrs Besant completed only one life, that being Number 28: "It is different in style from the Lives written by Mr Leadbeater... The lines at the end too are graphic in their intensity, lines which could not have been written by the matter-of-fact undramatic narrator who was Mr Leadbeater." Wood, 1947:28
--- 1010 ---
Chapter 13: Notes
1. *A Textbook of Theosophy, 1971:97-8
2. *Man. Whence, How and Whither, 1913:111
4. Ibid:iv-v. Leadbeater taught that the total number of souls, or Monads, making up humanity was sixty million, the majority being out of incarnation at any given time. See Eirenicon, No. 133, Winter, 1959:15.
5. Cf. *A Textbook of Theosophy, 1971:45-9. Psychometry is a technique of divining from physical contact with, or close proximity to, an object associated with the person for whom the divining is being undertaken or with the person himself. Cf. Fodor, 1966:317-21.
6. Cf. *Man Visible and Invisible, 1902:52, 64, 66, 78.
7. The first public reference to the "permanent atom" came in Mrs Besant's A Study in Consciousness (1904) in which she published material previously reserved for the ES. The concept has been criticized as contradicting the teachings of HPB.
8. *The Inner Life, volume II, 1949:145-8
10. Cf. Gardner, 1963, and the account of Gardner's comments found in the final chapter of the present work.
11. Wood, (1936):135
12. Letter to The Occult Review, July, 1923; cf. Dawn, January 1, 1924.
13. *Man. Whence, How and Whither, 1913:488
14. Letter from Leadbeater to Mrs Besant quoted in The Theosophist, June, 1932:242. Since writing that letter on October 6th, 1909, Leadbeater had made additional discoveries, clarifying the identities of all those given Greek letters as their Star names, and had changed HPB's named to Vajra, and Olcott's to Ulysses, attributing their former names to two Adepts.
15. Thomas, tenth Earl of Dundonald (1775-1860) was a great naval commander, Member of Parliament, scientist and inventor. He is buried in Westminster Abbey.
--- 1011 ---
16. Lists of Star names were published in *Man. Whence, How and Whither, 1913:5-8, and in *The Lives of Alcyone, Vol. II, 1924: appendix. Private lists were also circulated; the author saw three of these in the TS Archives at Adyar. They differed considerably in the number of Star names included and, on occasions, on the identifications. A Students Chart The Lives of Alcyone, was compiled by Julia Somner (1910) with the Star names printed and columns for the student to complete with the names of relations and relationships. A copy in the TS Archives at Adyar includes handwritten identifications of the Star names. The copy of Volume II of The Lives of Alcyone seen by the author in the TS Library at Adyar bore handwritten annotations identifying characters; it also bore Mrs Besant's bookplate and the annotations seem to have been hers.
17. The Theosophic Voice came into existence initially to oppose Leadbeater's return to the TS in 1907-8, and continued as an instrument of attack on him and criticism of Mrs Besant. It bore the legend "For Theosophy and America" on its front page, and published a great deal of material relating to the 1906 trial and subsequent accusations against Leadbeater. The author examined copies in the collection of Point Loma Publications at San Diego, California, and whilst in the USA obtained a complete set for his own collection. Arthur Nethercot (1963:205) identifies Dr Hiestand-Moore as Scorpio, and J. M. Prentice also claimed that this identification was accurate (C.W. Leadbeater:3). None of the private or published lists seen by the author contains an identity for Scorpio. F.T. Brooks rather hoped that he was the villain, and certainly his books exposing the inner workings of the TS and the secrets of the ES might have earned him that position.
18. Drawn from the lists in *Man. Whence, How and Whither, and *The Lives of Alcyone; see note 16 above.
19. Wood, (1936):196
20. Mary Lutyens showed the author a chart prepared to show her mother (Lady Emily Lutyens) in the scheme of Incarnations; it is an enormous and complicated document. One of the few photographs showing Leadbeater smiling is that which also shows him holding one of the genealogical charts. The TS Archives at Adyar include examples of the slips which were prepared for each Star name, detailing the
individual's relationship with Alcyone.
21. Jinarajadasa, 1922:49
--- 1012 ---
22. *Man. Whence, How and Whither, 1913:35-6
25. The Occult Review, September, 1923. John Prentice, ever an outspoken critic of Leadbeater, wrote an attack on his clairvoyant investigations of history in support of the charges made by Hare - see Dawn, November 1, 1923. Prentice charged that the material for the Peruvian lives in Man. Whence How and Whither (1913:482-90) had been lifted out of Garcilassode le Vega's Royal Commentaries on the Yucas of Peru (written in 1609 and published in English translation in 1638, 1869 and 1871). Leadbeater had declared in Man. Whence. How and Whither (1913:486) that no such published material existed.
26. Cf. Eirenicon, July/August, 1946; December, 1946/January, 1947; and March/April, 1947. When Jinarajadasa annotated Wood's Clairvoyant Investigations by C.W. Leadbeater (1947) he made no mention of Wood's later writings on the same subject, or the attitude he had come to hold about Leadbeater's clairvoyant investigations. Thus Clairvoyant Investigations bv C.W. Leadbeater reads as a confirmation of the Lives. Is This Theosophy? (1936) was not widely known, although Ernest Wood himself was a well-known Theosophical lecturer until his death in 19??. He had drifted away from the Adyar TS after the presidential election following the death of Mrs Besant, for details of which see chapter 20 of this work. When the author was undertaking research in the TS Library at Adyar in 1979 he was told that, although Wood's book was in the collection, it would be "unobtainable" during the period of his research. It had already been consulted, however, in the British Library, and there is a copy in the author's private collection.
27. Wood 1936):139-40
28. Ibid:?? The "Parsi gentleman" was almost certainly B.P. Wadia.
29. Ibid:140-1. The Dream of Ravan. A Mystery, was published by the TPS, London, 1895.
30. Wood, (1936):195-6
--- 1013 ---
33. See The Canadian Theosophist, May, 1934
34. See Neff, 1937:202
35. See The Canadian Theosophist, May, 1938
36. See The Occult Review, May, 1923:316
37. In The Theosophist, May, 1938:176
38. The three major clairvoyant works listed as jointly authored were Man. Whence How and Whither (1913), The Lives of Alcyone (published 1924, but in fact written more than ten years earlier) and Occult Chemistry (1908).
39. Quoted in Brooks, 1914a:283
Chapter 14: Notes
1. The Link, November, 1911
2. Wood, 1947:10
3. John Cordes (? -1960) was an Austrian who had joined the TS in Africa, in 1898, and went to Adyar in 1910 at Mrs Besant's invitation, to work for the TPH. Don Fabrizio Ruspoli (1878-1935) was an officer of the Italian navy (some sources say a Lieutenant, others a Vice-Admiral), who joined the TS in 1902, and became an enthusiastic worker for the cause.
4. Wood, 1947:38
7. Copies of novels bearing Leadbeater's ex libris seen at Adyar are almost all marked by his corrections of the author's spelling, grammar and punctuation, together with annotations on style. Leadbeater was fastidious, almost to the point of obsession, about such small matters, objecting strongly to any form of abbreviation.
8. A number of books were based on these roof-top talks, including *The Inner Life (1910/11), *The Hidden Side
of Things (1913), *Man: Whence, Row and Whither (1913) and *Talks on the Path of Occultism, which contained three volumes, each a commentary on a Theosophical "classic": At the Feet of the Master, The Voice of the Silence and Light on the Path. They were nominally the joint efforts of Leadbeater and Mrs Besant, although in fact they were compiled by Ernest Wood from notes of various talks given by them.
9. A.K. Sitarama Shastri (1860-?) left the Indian civil service to establish the Vasanta Press in 1908, having joined the TS in 1892.
10. Mary Lutyens, 1975:26
11. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:29
12. Hooker, 1981:141
13. Leadbeater's "troubles" in the USA were to some extent started by officials of the ES. It was the Corresponding Secretary (Mrs Dennis) and the Assistant Corresponding Secretary (Mrs Chidester) who took much of the action to pursue the charges; they were, not unexpectedly, expelled from the ES by Mrs Besant.
14. The Link, August, 1908
15. The author had an interview with the current Outer Head of the ES, Mrs Radha Burnier, in Adyar in 1979; she told him that the rules continue much the same today. Candidates must have been active members of the TS for two years at least, be vegetarians, and not drink alcohol, smoke tobacco or take drugs. They are also obliged to abstain from sexual relations outside marriage. There seems no doubt that, in Leadbeater's time, ES members also abstained from sexual relations within marriage, and this occasioned not a few marital breakdowns.
16. Quoted in Brooks, 1914b:210
17. Cf. The Link, August, 1912. Jnana, Bhakti and Raja yoga are three of the traditional "schools" or approaches to yoga in Indian thought. Put simply, Jnana yoga emphasizes liberation through knowledge, Bhakti yoga through religious devotion or worship, and Raja yoga, or "kingly yoga, through "spiritual culture" and mastery of the mind. Cf. Ernest Wood, Seven Schools of Yoga, TPH, Wheaton, 1973, for a Theosophical interpretation of the "schools".
18. According to Jinarajadasa, H. Schmiechen painted
portraits of the Masters KH and M for the Shrine Room at Adyar under the psychic influence of HPB. Copies of these were painted to send to the ES in America, and copies were also made for several individuals. Individual members of the ES were given photographs of a copy (said to be that made for W.Q. Judge), and the originals were never photographed. Reproductions of these ES photographs have appeared in various TS books, though never with explanations as to their origins. The author has been shown photographs distributed in the ES by several elderly members, and, whilst in the USA in 1982, acquired a set of the photographs for his own collection. Edward Carpenter, although not a member of the ES or the TS, was shown the original portraits when he visited Adyar in 1891, and commented that they showed "fine looking men, apparently between 40 and 50 years of age with shortish hair", "both with large eyes and what might be called a spiritual glow in their eyes", but "decidedly mawkish expressions of both faces as well as ... considerable likeness to each other". (Edward Carpenter, From Adam's Peak to Elephanta, Swan Sonnenschein and Co, London, 1903:228-9)
19. A mantra, in Indian tradition, is a sacred word or verse of scripture to which special significance is attributed, and by the repetition of which spiritual or occult effects are supposed to be produced. Generally, a mantra is supposed to be secret, often being given to a disciple by a guru. The most common mantra in India, and that used in the ES, is the Sanskrit word, aum. Cf. John Blofeld, Mantras. Sacred Words of Power, Mandala, London, 1977.
20. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:33
21. *The Masters and the Path, 1953:108
23. On occasions Leadbeater would not accept Mrs Besant's decisions as to who had been Initiated or advanced, and did not make parallel entries in his copy of the Golden Book. A comparison of the two copies would be of great interest, as would an opportunity to follow the occult and secular careers of the Initiates. However, if the copies of the Golden Book remain in existence, they are in the archives of the ES at Adyar, and inaccessible to all but the highest ranking members of that organization. The author's enquiries about them when at Adyar in 1979 provoked something of a panic, since even their existence is supposed to be a secret.
24. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:34
25. Surya was the Star name of the Lord Maitreya. Shamballa was "an oasis in the Gobi desert ... often spoken of as the Sacred Island, in remembrance of the time when it was an island in the Central Asian Sea". (The Masters and the Path, 1953:332) It was the "residence" of the Lord of the World, who lived there with his three pupils, "often called 'The Children of the Fire-Mist' since They belong to an evolution different from ours." (Ibid) That Shamballa may not be visible to physical plane explorers indicates only that it exists on a high spiritual plane. The concept of Shamballa (from the Sanskrit Sham meaning "tranquility") appears first in the Puranas of India; it reached Tibet via Buddhist missionaries, and became the subject of considerable speculation and mythology. It was introduced into the West by the writings of Madame Blavatsky. She referred to it as "the sacred Island (now the 'fabled' Shamballah, in the Gobi Desert)" to which the "elect" of the lost continent of Lemuria had gone when their homeland was destroyed. See Blavatsky, 1888, vol. II:319. For the concept of Shamballa in occultism generally, cf. Andrew Tomas, Shamballa: Oasis of Light, Sphere Books, London, 1977
26. Mrs Helen Lubke was an elderly lady who worked in the Adyar Library, 1908-11. Leadbeater had written to Mrs Besant on December 15, 1909, describing her as "such a depleting creature" whose unpleasant influence would "permeate the atmosphere" in which Krishna was to sleep. This does not indicate so much ony particular failing of Mrs Lubke, except that she was elderly and female, and therefore in a category generally despised by Leadbeater.
27. Balfour-Clarke, 1977:16
30. *The Masters and the Path, 1953:331
31. quoted in Balfour-Clarke, 1977:23
32. A letter to Mrs Besant, January 12, 1910, quoted
in Mary Lutyens, 1975:35.
36. F.T. Brooks, however, claimed that the father's outrage must have been occasioned by something worse; "Laksham would not have been upset by mere nakedness - in north India, whence he comes, boys up to puberty wander about naked. Imposition of a loin cloth is a south Indian custom." (1914b:174)
37. Wood, (1936):150
38. Leadbeater held that it was possible for a trained psychic to project thought, either consciously or unconsciously, with such strength that it assumed the quality of physical reality. "As a matter of fact, occultists of both the white and black schools frequently use artificial elementals in their work and few tasks are beyond the powers of such creatures when scientifically prepared and directed with knowledge and skill." (*The Astral Plane, 1970:136-7) The projection of thoughts towards others, for good or evil, was a subject on which Leadbeater frequently wrote.
39. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:41
41. *The Masters and the Path, 1953:62-3
42. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:44
43. Light on the Path was written by Mabel Collins (Mrs Kenningdale Cook - 1851-1927) in 1885, "under inspiration". Leadbeater, in his introduction to the TPH edition of the book said the Master Hilarion dictated the book to Mabel Collins, as well as another work, The Idyll of the White Lotus (1884). Miss Collins, however, denied this, and said no Master had dictated the books; she objected to the TPH editions of them because of Leadbeater's introduction and notes. For her version of the origins, cf. her When the Sun Moves Northward, TPH, London, 1923:143-55. For HPB's version of the same origin, cf. her To All Theosophists: The Esoteric Section of the Theosophical Society and its enemies, 1889, reprinted in H.P. Blavatsky Collected Writings, Volume 11, TPH, Wheaton, 1973:306ff. For Leadbeater's version, see his introduction to the 7th TPH Adyar edition, and discussions of it in Eirenicon, No.108, Autumn, 1953. Mabel Collins' response to Leadbeater's claims is discussed in The Canadian Theosophist, Vol. X, No. 3, May, 1929:105-8. Mabel Collins had becone an eminent member or the TS in the 1880's, assisting HPB in editing Lucifer, but left in 1889 over differences in teaching. The Voice of
the Silence was written by HPB, supposedly through the inspiration of the Master Hilarion, after she claimed to have visited a monastery in the Himalayas where she obtained a knowledge of the material contained in the work. It was said that she translated the book in 1889 from The Book of the Golden Precepts, a Buddhist text. HPB said that she merely translated the text; Leadbeater claimed it was inspired. Cf. Meade, 1980:432-3.
44. "Alcyone", 1964:xiii
46. "Veritas", 1913:32-4
47. 'The Masters and the Path, 1953:63-4
48. Wood, (1936):161.
50. Emily Lutyens, 1957:28
51. Cf. Notes on th- possible origins of "At the Feet of the Master", by Rex Henry, unpub. ms., (1982), written on the basis of his discussions with Dick Balfour-Clarke, who had been present during the period of the writing of At The Feet of the Master. The author also discussed this matter with both Balfour-Clarke and Henry at Adyar in 1979. For Chatterji's translation of the Viveka-chudamani see Viveka-Cudamani or Crest-Jewel of Wisdom of Sri Samkaracarya, translated by Mohini M Chatterji, TPH, Adyar, 1932. Balfour-Clarke argued that the same fundamental principles, in the same sequence, appear in both At The Feet of The Master and the Viveka-Cudamani: discrimination, desirelessness, good conduct and love. In fact, this is an over-simplification of the Viveka-Cudamani; it is very much more complex than At The Feet of The Master, and even a summary of it would be considerably more sophisticated than the other work. The principles common to both the Viveka-Cudamani and At The Feet of The Master are, generally speaking, common to Indian philosophy. Although Leadbeater - if he was the author of the work attributed to Krishnamurti - may have drawn upon the Viveka-Cudamani, there is no internal evidence to suggest that he did so directly.
52. The author saw a set of the regalia of the Purple Order in the collection of Mary Lutyens in London; the sash was of heavy satin, lavishly embroidered in gold, the letters "J.K." very richly embroidered. The badge was
beautifully produced and inscribed. Presumably only the wealthy could join such an organization if regalia of this quality was obligatory.
53. The Adyar Bulletin, June, 1912
Chapter 15: Notes
1. Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925) was an eminent German scholar and authority on Goethe, who joined the TS in 1902, and developed his clairvoyant faculties. He was secretary of the German Section, 1902-12. For Steiner, cf. Ahern, 1984:65-86; A.P. Shepherd, A Scientist of the Invisible, Dodder and Stoughton, London, 1971; and Rudolf Steiner, The Course of My Life, Rudolf Steiner Publications, New York, 1977. Although the separation of the majority of the German members from the Adyar-based TS was nominally a result of dissension over the OSE, it was in fact based more on Steiner's development as an occult teacher along Christian lines in contradistinction to the Indian based teachings of Mrs Besant and Leadbeater: see Ahern, 1984:89-91. Steiner was also concerned with academic respectability; his expulsion of Hugo Vollrath, Franz Hartmann's secretary, in 1908 had been based on Steiner's objections to Vollrath's spurious academic titles and the fact that he was obviously using the TS as a field for money-making pseudo-occultism. Cf. Ellic Howe, Astrology and Psychological Warfare During World War II, Rider, London, 1972:19-20.
2. By April, 1913, the Anthroposophical Society had branches in 16 countries, including 43 in Germany, 5 in England, 6 in Holland, 8 in Switzerland, and 1 in the USA. Cf Mrs Besant's Presidential Address to the 38th Annual Convention, 1913, in Adyar Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 7:5-18, and "The Birth of Anthroposophy" in Mitteilungen (Cologne), April, 1913:15-29. Anthroposophy has never been as numerous as Theosophy, with perhaps 20,000 being the present membership of the Anthroposophical Society; see Campbell, 1980:156 and Ahern, 1984:34.
3. "Onanism" was a Victorian euphemism for masturbation, based on a misinterpretation of the reference in the Old Testament to Onan who "spilled his seed upon the ground" (Genesis, 38:9), a reference to coitis interruptis rather than to masturbation. Issues of The Hindu were consulted in the TS Library at Adyar.
4. The author had access to some of the Point Loma
archives associated with these events in the libraries of The Theosophical Society, International, at Pasadena, and of Point Loma Publications in San Diego, in California in 1982, and interviewed some of those who had been members of the Point Loma community at the time, including the current heads of both organizations. [TSI, PL]
5. J.H. Fussell, Mrs Annie Besant and the Moral Code, (author, Point Loma, 1909)
8. Onan was the second son of Judah; on the death of Er, his older brother, Judah ordered him to undertake a levirate marriage with Tamar, Er's widow. It was to avoid having children with Tamar that Onan "spilled his seed upon the ground", and was, as a result, killed by God. Cf. Genesis, 38:8-10.
9. Mrs Besant answered the allegations of the Antiseptic in a supplement to the Adyar Bulletin, September, 1913, in which she expressed concern lest people in Adyar would refuse to visit to... -?- -tate as a result of Dr Nair's slanders. Cf. "Dr Nair and Annie Besant", Supplement to Adyar Bulletin, September. 1913:111.
10. Cf. Nethercot* 1963:158-9
11. John Bull, February 9, 1909:141
13. Ibid, February 13, 1909:165
14. Ibid, November 16, 1912:642
15. Balfour-Clarke, 1977:28-29
18. An interview with Bhagavan Das, quoted in Nethercot, 1963:172
19. For details of December 28th, and quotations from the ES sources, cf. "Veritas", 1913:108-10.
20. The Subba Row Medal, awarded for Theosophical
--- 1021 ---
literature in memory of the Indian Leadbeater had claimed as
one or his first teachers, had been awarded to HPB in 1888, to Mrs Besant in 1895, to Leadbeater in 1897, and to Rudolf Steiner in 1900. It was subsequently awarded to Jinarajadasa (1913), Ernest Wood (1924) and George Arundale (1935).
21. Taormina had interesting occult and sexual associations. Although traditionally associated with Pythagoras, who had his school there, in the late nineteenth century it had acquired a degree of notoriety as a holiday centre for homosexuals. It was the home of Baron Wilhelm von Gloeden (1856-1931), a notable photographer of naked boys - cf. Charles Leslie, Wilhelm von Gloeden: Photographer, JFI Photographic Publishers, New York, 1977. It was also one of James Wedgwood's favourite retreats because - according to his former secretary, Rex Henry - of its homosexual association.
22. *The Masters and the Path, 1953:210
26. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:58. For transcriptions of the Master's instructions, contained in letters from Leadbeater to Mrs Besant, cf. "Veritas", 1913:98, 100-1.
27. For transtcripts of Narayaniah's letters to Mrs Besant, cf. "Veritas", 1913:44-7, 49-51, 52-4, 58.
28. Reginald Farrer (?-1933) was a young Theosophist, the Secretary/Treasurer of the League of Redemption, a Theosophical group to study "the nature and cure of the social evil". He was the centre of a sexual scandal in association with Jamed Wedgwood in the 1920's. Dick Balfour-Clarke, in conversation with the author at Adyar in 1979, recalled him as "a rather unintelligent homosexual".
29. Cf. Emily Lutyens, 1957, and Mary Lutyens, 1959. Leadbeater was attracted to Lady Emily firstly because of her aristocratic, upper-class connections, and secondly because she was descended from Bulwer-Lytton, whom he regarded as an eminent occultist. Considerable strain was placed on Lady Emily's marriage after she joined the TS in 1910 since she devoted herself almost entirely to work for it and travel in association with various TS activities -
see her daughter's biography of Sir Edwin Lutyens: Mary Lutyens, 1980.
30. When Emily Lutyens, 1957, first appeared it caused a great turmoil in TS circles; the general opinion today seems to be that much of it is "only hearsay" and much of it "should never have been made public". It is worth noting that the Presiding Bishop of the Liberal Catholic Church, Adrian Vreede, who had been closely associated with Leadbeater during the period covered by the book, declared that it was "absolutely true as to the facts therein". Cf. The Liberal Catholic, February, 1964, Editorial. The author had access to Lady Emily's papers, including copies of letters to and from Leadbeater, in London by courtesy of Mary Lutyens.
31. Emily Lutyens, 1957:47
37. King, 1971:131. Texts of this document are quoted in "Veritas", 1913, and King, 1971; the quotations are taken from the latter source, and have been compared with copies of the originals seen in the TS Archives at Adyar. For a transcript of the statement, see In the Court of the District Judge for Chingleput O.S. No. 47 of 1912, Divine Life Press (1913), and also "Veritas", 1913:70-77. [*, AR, TSI, PL]
--- 1023 ---
47. Dr Mary Rocke (1865-1927), M.D. (London), was a missionary in India, who joined the TS, and devoted herself enthusiastically to work for the OSE. She had been living at Adyar at the time of Krishna's discovery, and eventually went to Sydney where she lived in Leadbeater's community, acting as his physician. Much of her personal fortune was given to TS causes.
48. See "Veritas", 1913:198. The reference in the evidence is obscure and was not picked up by the cross-examiner. It appears, however, that the boy was to be circumcised because his foreskin would not retract during an erection, and that Leadbeater showed hin some form of "exercise" whereby this could be facilitated.
49. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:67
54. Cf. Mrs Besant's Defamation Cases, Divine Life Press, Chicago, (1913). The Magistrate commented that "Mr Leadbeater is the person attacked and he has not come forward to vindicate his character".
55. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:71. See also The Times, May 8, 1913:7 for the account of the case.
56. In The Equinox, Vol. 1, No. 10, September, 1913.
57. Nethercot, 1963:193
58. Emily Lutyens, 1957:58-9. By October, 1912, the OSE reported a membership throughout the world of 11,000. This included 1,413 in England, 900 in France, 530 in the Netherlands, 1,800 in India, 1,938 in the USA, 800 in New Zealand, and 865 in Australia. Members could be numbered in the hundreds in Scotland, Denmark, Sweden, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Germany and the Dutch East Indies. Cf. The Herald of the Star, January, 1913.
59. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:77
--- 1024 ---
60. Ibid:78. Miss Mary Hoadley Dodge was a very rich American friend of Lady Emily Lutyens; she settled an income of five hundred pounds a year for life on Krishna, and three hundred pounds a year on Nitya. She also settled an income on Mrs Besant, and gave Lady Emily one hundred pounds a year so that she could travel on TS business. Severely crippled with arthritis, she died in 1935. Krishnamurti continues to receive her allowance - cf. Mary Lutyens, 1983:40.
Chapter 16: Notes
1. See Emily Lutyens, 1957:70 and Mary Lutyens, 1975:83
2. For the origins of Mrs Besant's political work, cf. Nethercot, 1963:217; Ransom, 1938:405; Jinarajadasa, 1925:176-80. The occult origins of Mrs Besant's work in Indian politics have never been fully studied.
3. Cf. Mary Lutyens, 1975:106
4. The Jonkheer Julian Adrian Mazel (1869-1928) was an eminent Dutchman who had worked in the Dutch East Indies, and became associated with Leadbeater.
5. Quoted in The Besant Privy Council Appeal. Full Arguments and Judgement, Law Weekly, Madras, 1914
6. The Order of the Round Table is "An international Order of Young People, reviving the old ideals of Chivalry through the ranks of its Pages, Companions, Squires and Knights. Through a simply stirring ceremonial, devotion and reverence are quickened; through altruistic activities of service, idealism is brought into expression; and through the inculcation of discipline, the will is aroused." International Theosophical Year Book, 1937:173
7. The Theosophist, October, 1915:83
8. *The Hidden Side of Christian Festivals, 1920:479
9. Ibid:466 -70; Prince Bismarck (1815-1898) had been the chief architect of the German Empire.
10. In a more positive way, Leadbeater claimed that Apollonius of Tyana, who was the Master Jesus in another
--- 1025 ---
incarnation, planted talismans in various parts of the world to found magnetic centres for good - cf. *The Masters and the Path, 1953:274-5
11. *The Hidden Side of Christian Festivals, 1920:481
14. Ibid:481; cf. *Invisible Helpers, 1928.
15. See Jinarajadasa, EST Letter No. 11, December 15, 1941:3-4
16. *Australia and New Zealand. The Home of a New Sub-Race, 1916:66
17. Cf. *Talks on "At the Feet of the Master", 1922
18. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:88
19. Benegal Shiva Rao (1891-1975) had been a teacher at the preparatory school attached to the Central Hindu College, Benares; he went to Adyar to assist Leadbeater with the compilation of charts for the Lives. In 1914 he was sent to Bude, in Cornwall, by Mrs Besant to teach Krishna and Nitya Sanskrit.
22. *Why a Great World Teacher?, 1915:16
24. Thomas H. Martyn (1860-1924) was an eminent Sydney businessman, and a leader of the TS, to which he devoted considerable time and money. He features prominently in the later controversies about Leadbeater which developed in Sydney.
25. Cf. Wedgwood, 1976 and Anson, 1964:344-8.
26. Wedgwood became an authority on the organ, and published two substantial works on the subject: Comprehensive Dictionary of Organ Stops, English and Foreign, Ancient and Modern, Vincent Music Co, London, 1905, and Some Continental Organs (Ancient and Modern) and their
--- 1026 ---
Makers, with Specifications of Many of the Fine Examples in
German and Switzerland, William Reeves, London, 1910.
27. For Aelred Carlyle and his work, cf. Peter F Anson, Abbot Extraordinary, Faith Press, London, 1958, in which there is a brief reference to Wedgwood's visit on p. 84.
28. There are few published references to the Temple; those in Theosophical publications tend to be vague, and those outside the TS tend to be inaccurate - for example, McIntosh, 1980:142, or Fr. Wittemans, A New and Authentic History of the Rosicrucians, Rider, London, 1936:180-1131. The author interviewed a number of people who had been members.
29. The author had access to Lady Emily's correspondence with Leadbeater for this period in the collection of her daughter, Mary. Cf. The Disciple, February, 1935:40-3
30. From an interview with Rex Henry, for many years Wedgwood's private secretary.
31. Cf. Hooker, 1980:183
32. For general studies of Freemasonry by an outsider, cf. Walton Hannah, Darkness Visible, Augustine Press, London, 1952, and Christian by Degrees, Britons Publishing Co, London, 1964. Both works are written from a highly critical perspective.
33. Cf. Wedgwood, n.d., and *Glimpses of Masonic History, 1926:324-8.
34. Cf. Neff, 1934.
35. It became usual for members of the TS to be members also the OSE and of Co-Masonry (abbreviated to Co-M), and, a little later, for many of them to become members of the Liberal Catholic Church (LCC). There is a small Masonic Temple on the TS Estate at Adyar, and all the Presidents of the TS from Mrs Besant onwards have held high Masonic status - Mrs Besant, Arundale, Jinarajadasa and Sri Ram were all 33', as is the present President, Radha Burnier. The senior officers of the TS have also inevitably been high ranking Co-Masons.
36. See Caspersz, n.d.:10
37. *Ancient Ideals in Modern Masonry, 1917:3-4
39. The two rivals to Leadbeater in writing of the antiquity of freemasonry are J.S.M. Ward (who was also an independent Bishop, and headed a small occult church) and W.L. Wilmshurst, both of whom wrote prolifically on the subject. Brief accounts of their work is found in Walton Hannah's Christian by Degrees, above cit.:68-71.
40. *Ancient Ideals in Modern Masonry, 1917:4-5
41. *Glimpses of Masonic History, 1926:76
43. Annie Besant, Theosophy, T.C. and F.C. Jack, London, n.d., presents a rather mild version of Theosophical belief.
44. cf. Anson, 1964: chapters 6 and 9
45. Sources used for Mathew and his movement included published works such as Anson, 1964, and Brandreth, 1961, together with archival material in the Library of Lambeth Palace, London, and the collections of a number of small churches claiming descent from Mathew, most notably the Catholic Apostolic Church (Orthodox Church of the British Isles) which includes the archives of many defunct churches. [*, BL]
46. For the Old Catholics of Holland, cf. Moss, 1964.
47. For details of the consecration, cf. Moss, 1964:300-301; Anson, 1964:171-2; Cockerham, 1966:9-13.
48. Cf. Anson, 1964: chapter 9.
49. Cf. Annie Besant, The Changing World, 1911:262-78.
50. See The Theosophist, February, 1912, "Supplement".
51. Wedgwood, 1976:3
52. *The Science of the Sacraments, 1929:233
--- 1028 ---
54. Quoted in Ubique, February, 1962:18. For details
of St Hildegard's visions, cf. Lynn Thorndike, A History of, Magic and Experimental Science, Macmillan, New York, volume II, 1929:124-154, and F.H. Steele, The Life and Visions of St Hildegarde, 1914.
55. For an insider's version of the events, cf. Hooker, 1981:168-74
56. Cf. Redfern, 1956; Wedgwood, 1976 and The Facts regarding the Episcopal Succession in the Liberal Catholic Church. [*]
Chapter 17: Notes
1. Mabel Besant-Scott (1870-19?) was the daughter of Annie Besant and the Reverend Frank Besant. Taken by Mrs Besant when she left him in 1873, Mabel was returned to him in 1879 when Mrs Besant lost a custody case brought by her husband. She returned to Mrs Besant before she came of age, and joined the TS in 1890. She worked in the London headquarters of the TS, and at Adyar. She married a journalist, Ernest Scott, in 1892, and went with him to Melbourne where he became a parliamentary reporter. Mrs Besant-Scott was very active in Co-Masonry, and was the Grand Secretary of Co-Masonry, 1921-5, and until 1935 held high office in the Order. After her mother's death she broke away to found a rival Co-Masonic movement. She and her husband were divorced. He went on to become Professor of History at the University of Melbourne. Jose B. Acuna had joined the TS in Central America in his youth, and was also active in Co-Masonry and, eventually, Liberal Catholic work. He was consecrated Bishop for Central America and Columbia in 1937, and resigned in 1962.
2. Frederick Samuel Willoughby (1862-?), MA, St Catherine's College, Cambridge, was originally an extreme Anglo-Catholic priest, associated with the English Church Union, the Confraternity of the Blessed Sacrament, the Guild of All Souls. In 1888 he founded, and was the first Principal of St Chad's Hostel, a High Church training centre in Yorkshire. In 1906 he accepted the living of Stockton-on-Tees, but was asked to resign after moral charges (cf. John Bull, June 20, 1914). He joined Mathew's small church, and rose rapidly in the clergy, being consecrated as a Co-adjutor Bishop on October 28, 1914. After his break with Mathew he sought to be received into the Roman Catholic Church; after consecrating a number of
independent bishops, he submitted to Rome in 1916, finally dying in Germany. Cf. Anson, 1964:193-8, 368, 370 and Hooker, 1981:184-89. Robert King (1869-1954) was a consulting psychic and astrologer who had originally been antagonistic to the "priestly caste" when Wedgwood, a close friend, tried to persuade him to join the Old Catholic Church. As the result of a psychic experience he changed his mind, and was ordained in August, 1914, after being baptized by Wedgwood. He spread Theosophy and Liberal Catholicism in Scotland, and was well known as a lecturer. From 1909 to 1913 he had been the principal medium and psychic for W.T. Stead's "Julia's Bureau", a spiritualist group. Cf. Anson, 1964:344 and Hooker, 1981:184 note 1. He was also the first spiritual teacher of the occult writer, W.E. Butler, who was later a Liberal Catholic priest, and had a small following of disciples to whom he gave regular instruction. Rupert Gauntlett was originally a member of the Catholic Apostolic Church (the "Irvingites"). He became the Secretary of the TS Order of Healers. He resigned from the LCC on March 14, 1924. Cf. Anson, 1964:344.
3. For the charges against Willoughby, cf. John Bull, June 20, 1914, and Anson, 1964:193-5, and, for a Liberal Catholic view, Hooker, 1981:185-6
4. From an interview with Rex Henry; Material on Bishop James from an interview with Mrs Elaine Baly, formerly a member of The Sanctuary and a close friend of the Bishop. For James, cf. Anson, 1964:368-70.
5. For HPB's view of the apostolic succession, see Isis Unveiled, Volume 2:544.
6. Leadbeater determined by his clairvoyant investigations that the Orders of the Church of England were valid - see *Science of the Sacraments, 1929:427. Wedgwood was less certain, and the Liberal Catholic Church required Anglicans who joined it, including Leadbeater, to submit to ordination sub conditione.
7. The Kollerstrom family were pioneers of Theosophy in Australia since the 1890's. Gustav served as the publicity officer of the Sydney Lodge, and was ordained as a priest. His wife, Gertrude, was also actively involved. They had a son, Oscar, who was a pupil of Leadbeater, and two daughters.
8. The witnesses to the Instrumentum were Tweedie, McConkey, Mr and Mrs Kollerstrom, J.A. Mazel and four boys: Oscar Kollerstrom (13), Hugh Noall (14), William Heyting (13) and Walter Hesselman (13). A copy of the document is
--- 1030 ---
reproduced in Cockerham, 1966:28.
9. Quoted in Jinarajadasa, 1952:3
12. Cf. Prentice, 1950.
13. From an interview at Adyar in December, 1979, with Dora Kunz, a pupil of Leadbeater in Sydney at the time.
14. Quoted in Guruge, 1965:775
15. Quoted in Jinarajadasa, 1952:5
16. Oscar Kollerstrom (1903-1979) was Leadbeater's first and principal pupil when he settled in Sydney in 1915; he quickly became involved in the Church and was preaching by the time he was fifteen years old. Leadbeater endeavoured to keep him separate from his other pupils, attributing special occult status to him. Detailed accounts of Oscar were obtained in interviews with Rex Henry, and Mrs. Brigit Kollerstrom (Kollerstrom's third wife), and in correspondence with his second wife, Sean.
17. For the Catholic Apostolic Church, cf. Rowland Davenport, Albury Apostles, United Writers, n.p., 1970.
18. See Mathew's Old Catholic Missal and Ritual, -?- pe and Fenwick, London, 1909. See Adrian Fortescue, The Ceremonies of the Roman Rite Described, Burns and Oates, London, 1917, for the Roman Rite; Henry Cairncross, S.C.R. Lamburn and G.A.C. Whatton, Ritual Notes, W. Knott and Son, London, 1894 for the Anglo-Catholic approach to ceremonial; and General Rubrics or Rules for the Celebration of the Divine Offices, Catholic Apostolic Church, London, 1862, for the "Irvingite" ritual. The first formal ceremonial for the Liberal Catholic rite was J.A. Mazel's Ceremonies of the Holy Eucharist, Liberal Catholic Church, Sydney, 1924. The first edition of Ceremonies of the Liberal Catholic Rite, a detailed ceremonial, was prepared by Irving Cooper and published by the St Alban Press, Sydney, 1934. A revised second edition appeared in 1964.
19. Hugh Noall came from Adelaide, Walter Hesselman (who changed his name to Hassal) originally came from Germany, and Willem (Pym) Heyting came with his family from Java. Cf. Hooker, 1980:264.
20. Quoted in Jinarajadasa, 1952:6
23. The Liturgy According to the Use of the Liberal Catholic Church, St Alban Press, London, 4th edition, 1967:2??
24. Quoted in Jinarajadasa, 1952:12-3
25. St Alban Hymn, St Alban Press, Sydney, 1928:hymn30?
26. Ibid: hymn 298
27. Ibid: hymn 395
28. Theosophy in Australasia, March, 1917
29. The first Statement of Principles, written by Wedgwood, was cautious, optimistic and, on the real philosophy behind the movement, somewhat obscure, referring vaguely to "the mystical experience of all ages and all religions" and "spiritual and psychical faculties" and "the science of unfolding these faculties, of cultivating the intuition", without clarifying the precise Theosophical meanings which lay behind such phrases. Cf. The Old Catholic Church in Great Britain. Statement of Principles, Old Catholic Church in Great Britain, London, 1916. Wedgwood prepared a revised version of the 1916 Statement, equally cautious in its avoidance of explicit Theosophy, but this, although published in 1918, did not become an official document of the new Church: cf. Hooker, 1981:259. It served as a basis for the 1919-1920 edition. Cf. The Liberal Catholic Church (Old Catholic). Statement of Principles, Liberal Catholic Church, London, 1918, and The Liberal Catholic Church. Statement of Principles, Summary of Doctrine and Table of the Apostolic Succession, St Alban Press, London, 1920.
30. The Theosophist, October, 1916:5
31. The Orders of the Liberal Catholic Church were rejected as invalid by Archbishop Mathew, from whom they derived via Willoughby. Mathew declared that those holding "Theosophical opinions" could not "have the necessary intention of receiving what Catholics mean by the Episcopate": see his letter in The Occult Review, April.
1918:251. The Anglican Church rejected all orders raid to derive from Mathew at the Lambeth Conference of 1920; see (Anglican Communion], 1920:154-6. The Roman Catholic Church has yet to make a formal pronouncement on the matter.
32. For an account of the origins and development of the Theosophical Education Trust, see Brooks, 1914a:369-393.
33. The Theosophist, August, 1917:672
34. See Ransom, 1938:425-6.
35. For the message see Theosophy in Australia, September, 1917:144-51 and The Theosophist, May, 1938:131.
36. The Theosophist, October, 1931:44-5
37. Cf. Brooks, 1914a:136
38. Cf. "H.P. Blavatsky's Reincarnation. A Contradiction and Possible Explanation" by A.J. Hamerster, in The Theosophist, January, 1938:275-6, and "H.P. Blavatsky's Reincarnation. Is There Contradiction?", By A. Rangnswami Ayer in The Theosophist, February, 1939:388-90.
39. Jinarajadasa had been chief officer of the Temple of the Rosy Cross at Adyar when Mrs Besant suspended its work in 1915. She instructed him to write a new ritual to replace the old, and he decided on a public work, based, in part, upon the Temple of the Rosy Cross. This new ritual included various symbolic offerings and quotations from all the major scriptures of the world. Cf. C. Jinarajadasa, The Ritual of the Mystic Star. A Form of Service for Worship and Consecration, privately printed, Adyar, 1938, and his The Meaning and Purpose of the Ritual of the Mystic Star, TPH, Adyar, 1945. The ritual is still performed in some TS groups, and at Adyar.
40. The Disciple, May, 1917
41. Cf. Nethercot, 1963:254-266
42. The Jonkheer Julian Adrian Mazel (1869-1928) had been ordained priest on April 16th, 1917, and was consecrated bishop two months later in the presence of a large congregation, including 96 communicants. He was initially appointed Auxiliary Bishop for Australasia, but appointed Regionary Bishop for the Netherlands-Indies in 1919, and additionally for the Netherlands in 1924. He
assisted in the translation of the Liberal Catholic Liturgy
into Dutch, and pioneered the establishment of the Church in what was then the Dutch East Indies.
43. *The Science of the Sacraments eventually went through two editions and seven printings between 1920 and 1980, and attracted considerable interest outside Leadbeater's immediate sphere of influence, gaining the attention of some Anglo-Catholic clergy as well as a number of Christian occultists. Over a thousand copies sold immediately in London when supplies were received from Sydney where the first edition was printed. Circulars were sent to every Anglican incumbent in the British Isles and to "all church dignitaries in the world". However, not all who read it were favourably impressed. The Theosophical artist, Isabelle de Steiger, described it as "a mere 'psychic dream', dreamt by the [writer] when his thoughts had been unable to pass that gate "[Pass] Not", where psychic fancies, being but astral reflections, no longer avail." (de Steiger, nd:271). The Anglican commentator, H.R.T. Brandreth said the work "abounds in unhealthy mysticism and fantastic symbolism". (1961:30). Peter Anson, the leading authority on episcopi vagantes, implied that Leadbeater may have been influenced in writing The Science of the Sacraments by an obscure French occult work, Prieres Liturgiques - assistance a la Messe (c.1910) by the French neo-Gnostic bishop Julius Houssaye. (Anson, 1964:306 note 4) Jules Ernest Houssaye (1844-1912) was Primate of the Gallican Eglise catholique francaise, and wrote a number of works on magic, symbolism and occultism under the pseudonym "Abbe Julio". However, there is no similarity between the two works.
44. *The Science of the Sacraments, 1929:2-3
46. The Liturgy According to the Use of the Liberal Catholic Church, 1967:214
48. *The Science of the Sacraments, 1929:15-16
49. Ibid:230. The completed Eucharistic edifice was said to be roughly square, with a number of recessed openings on each, and topped by a large dome with smaller domes or minarets on the corners. Santa Sophia Church in Constantinople was said to have been built in imitation of the Eucharistic edifice. Interesting plates are included in The Science of the Sacraments showing the technical side of the formation of the edifice aid the flow of force. For some
--- 1034 ---
reason, a photograph of "A mosque at Cairo" was included to illustrate the domes and minarets produced by the Eucharist.
52. The seven jewels are consecrated according to a ritual contained in Pontifical Ceremonies, published privately by the Liberal Catholic Church, London, 1935. Each of the jewels is linked magnetically to one of the Seven Rays of which it is the relevant mineral according to the occult scheme of things - cf. *The Science of the Sacraments, 1929:503, and *The Masters and the Path, 1925:269. Each jewel is said to represent a particular attribute (e.g. strength for the diamond, understanding for the emerald). During the consecration of a Liberal Catholic Church the bishop processes to each of the seven Ray Crosses around the building, and consecrates each separately. There is no mention in the services of the Church of the Masters by name.
53. Cf. The Old Catholic Church in the British Empire Directory, Old Catholic Church, London, 1915.
54. The Register of St Alban's Cathedral, Sydney, was made available to the author.
55. The Liturgy According to the Use of the Liberal Catholic Church, St Alban Press, London: 1st edition, 1919; 2nd edition, 1924; 3rd edition, 1942; 4th edition, 1967; 5th edition, 1984. There are slight revisions and variations between editions.
56. The Liturgy According to the Use of the Liberal Catholic Church, St Alban Press, London, 1919:5
57. Willian H. Pitkin, "An Introduction to the Liberal Catholic Church", in Ubique, Vol. 31, No. 1-2, n.d.,:13. In the 1926 edition of the Statement of Principles, Summary of Doctrine and Table of the Apostolic Succession, St Alban Press, Sydney, 1926:16-7, authorized by Leadbeater as Presiding Bishop, the following statement appears concerning the Christ: "Jesus the Christ was a manifestation in the outer world of a great being in the inner worlds, sometimes called the World Teacher, Who is the special epiphany and embodiment of the Second Person of the ever blessed Trinity .... The term 'World Teacher' connotes an office in the hierarchy of those 'Just men made perfect' Who form the spiritual government of our world, part of His
especial work being the teaching and enlightenment of the occupants of the world .... The state of the world is such that His near advent may confidently be expected."
58. Irving Steiger Cooper (1882-1935) was an American who served as Leadbeater's secretary in India and Australia. He was Regionary Bishop of the United States from his consecration in 1919 until his death.
59. *The Hidden Side of Christian Festivals, 1920:310
60. Dion Fortune in The Inner Light Magazine, September, 1931
61. See The Co-Mason, Volume 10, 1918, for a list of officers.
62. Irving Steiger Cooper (1882-1935) was born in California and became a Theosophist in his youth, and worked for the American Section of the TS. He was, for many years, secretary to Leadbeater in India and Australia. He was ordained priest in 1918. He established St Alban's Pro-Cathedral in Los Angeles in 1922, and was active in the USA for both the TS and the LCC. His books included Ways to Perfect Health ("Theosophist" Office, Adyar, 1912), Theosophy Simplified (TPH, London, 1916) and Reincarnation. The Hope of the World (TPH, London, 1918).
63. Fussell, 1913b:10-11
65. Ibid:ll-12. Jesus had the Star name of Brihaspati. In *Man. Whence, How and Whither, 1913, he's reported to have married Julius Caesar (Corona) in 18,815 BC when Jesus had been the daughter of the Master M (p.328). On the shore of the Gobi Sea (as it was) in 72,000 BC, Jesus was the sister to Lord Maitreya (p. 490). Following "the first Aryan immigration to India", 18,875 BC, Jesus and Maurice Prozor were the daughters, and Krishnamurti, Mrs Besant and the Master DK the sons of a marriage between the Master M and the Master DK (p. 494).
66. Document in "Special Bundle 7792.2", State Archives of New South Wales. Photocopy of all the documents in the bundle in the author's collection.
68. Martyn, 1921:1
71. Mrs St John was the mother of Theodore, who as a boy of 13 became Leadbeater's favourite pupil in later years.
72. Martyn, 1921:3
Chapter 18: Notes
1. Wedgwood, 1919:10
2. Rukmini Arundale (1904-) was the daughter of an engineer, also known as a Sanskrit scholar. She was born in Madurai in south India, and was educated at Madras. She became one of the central figures in the Theosophical drama in 1925.
3. For Conan Doyle's involvement in spiritualism, cf. his Wanderings of a Spiritualist, Hodder and Stoughton, London, (1921), and Fodor, 1966:106-7.
4. This tour was managed by Vyvyan Deacon, whose association with Leadbeater is examined in the final chapter.
5. Conan Doyle, (1921):168 and 281
6. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:121
9. In Theosophy in Australia, April, 1919
10. Copies of this letter were seen in the TS Archives at Adyar. [AR]
11. James 3 is essentially concerned with control of
the body, especially the tongue: "...no man can control his
tongue. It is an intractable evil, charged with deadly venom." (3:8) Chapter 4 argues against jealousy, ambition, conflicts and quarrels, and for submission and humility.
12. Quoted in C. Jinarajadasa, EST Letter No. 5, June 15, 1941:2-3
13. In The Theosophist, March, 1922
14. Australian E.S. Bulletin, August, 1921
15. Copies of The O.E. Library Critic were seen in the library of the United Lodge of Theosophists in London, the archives of Point Loma Publications in San Diego, California, and in the private collection of John Cooper in Sydney. Some of the issues specifically referring to Leadbeater are found in the State Archives file of the Police investigations into Leadbeater.
15. That Wedgwood was a homosexual, and a promiscuous one, around whom a number of young men collected from the earliest days of his Theosophical career seems beyond question. It has been confirmed in interviews with two people who knew him well, Rex Henry and Dick Balfour-Clarke, and with others who were associated with him in various ways. When he first became prominent in the TS in London, Wedgwood caused embarrassment by the young men who accompanied aim. Rex Henry reported that Wedgwood said he had tried to give up his promiscuity at one stage, but found it too difficult, and therefore simply surrendered to what he saw as a part of his nature.
17. In Theosophy in Australia, March, 1921. The references in the letters exchanged between Leadbeater and Mrs Besant during the foundation of the Church suggest that she did not have any idea of what was happening - cf. Jinarajadasa, 1952.
18. Martyn, (1922):4
20. The O.E. Library Critic, July 19th, 1922. The book referred to is The Monad, 1920. The only possible reference to "orgasm" in the work occurs at pp. 73-4 where there is a description of a meditational practice which could relate to the sexual technique Leadbeater was known to have taught.
21. Ibid: January 19th, 1921
22. Ibid: March 30th, 1921
23. Ibid: April 17th, 1921 and October 26th, 1921. According to Rex Henry and Dick Balfour-Clarke, Wedgwood frequently stated that truth was not of fundamental importance in occultism, and should give way to loyalty. If there was a choice between helping someone to whom one had a duty, or protecting an organization, and telling the truth, one should lie. He referred to lies as "a form of camouflage", and believed that different standards of morality applied to occultists and ordinary people.
24. Cf. Jinarajadasa, 1925:179-80
25. The O.E. Library Critic, August 31st, 1923; also Dawn, July 1,1923.
26. For biographical data on Alice Bailey, cf. Campbell, 1980:150-153 , and Bailey, 1951. For Bailey's teachings, cf. Sinclair, 1984.
27. In The Rays and the Initiations, the fifth volume of A Treatise on the Seven Rays (Lucis Press, NY, 1960:279). The Tibetan, through Mrs Bailey, comments: "If these new phases of the teaching have been later given to the public by other occult groups, it will have been because the information was gained by those who have read the books put out by A.A.B. for me or who are directly and consciously in touch with my Ashram. An instance of this is that book by C.W. Leadbeater on The Masters and the Path which was published later than my book, Initiation, Human and Solar. If the dates of any given teachings are compared with that given by me, it will appear to be of a later date than mine. I say this with no possible interest in any controversy among occult groups or the interested public, but as a simple statement of fact and as a protection to this particular work of the Hierarchy."
28. Although Mrs Bailey's books are now catalogued and accessible in the TS Library at Adyar, the author was told when there in 1979 that this was a comparatively recent innovation, and that previously these works were not listed in the catalogue. For details of Mrs Bailey's work, cf. Bailey, 1951 and Campbell, 1980:150-3. She organized the Arcane School in April, 1923, and her first books were published in 1922. These included Initiation. Human and Solar, which is on the work of the occult hierachy, and bears a striking resemblance, not only in matter, but also in style, to Leadbeater's The Masters and the Path.
29. The O.E. Library Critic, January 31st , 1923. Cf.
The Inner Life, 1910, vol. 1:119 and the Liberal Catholic Liturgy, 1967:155. The Liturgy offers thanks "for the teaching and example of thy holy apostles", but The Inner Life, says they did not exist.
30. No copies of The O.E. Library Critic are listed in the TS Library at Adyar, and the author was told that they are not listed in the catalogue of the TS Archives. Unless Mrs Besant destroyed them, they must be in the Archives of the ES at Adyar.
31. Mrs Besant had lectured frequently on Giodarno Bruno, and initially believed him to have been her last incarnation; Leadbeater found later ones. Cf. Nethercot, 1963:180. In Sydney radio station 2GB continues to use the initials of Giodarno Bruno as its call-sign; its links with Theosophy are occasionally remembered in articles on Sydney history.
32. Cf. The Theosophist, February, 1922:533-4, and Adyar Day. 17th February.
33. Quoted in The Theosophist, June, 1922:306
34. The O.E. Library Critic, June 21st, 1922. The confession is also reproduced in Thomas, n.d., and in a circular published in J.W. Hamilton-Jones in London, in 1922.
35. Josephine Ransom (1879-1960) was an Australian who joined the TS in 1897, and worked with Mrs Besant in Benares, 1904-6. She was the General Secretary of the TS in Australia, 1924-5, and England, 1933-6. She was the author of two semi-official works on the history of the TS. Cf. Ransom, 1938 and 1950.
36. Besant, 1922.
37. Quoted in von Krusenstierna, 1978. The letter of resignation was published in whole or part in a number of journals.
38. See von Krusenstierna, 1978.
39. Copies of Dawn were seen in the Mitchell Library, Sydney and in the TS Library at Adyar. Some copies relevant to the Police enquiries into Leadbeater are found in the State Archives file.
40. Cf. The O.E. Library Critic, July 19th, 1922, and Dawn, May, 1922.
41. The O.E. Library Critic, December, 20th, 1922
42. Gauntlett is listed in official LCC documents as resigning from the Church on March 14th, 1924, and after that seems to have devoted himself to working for the British-Israel cause. Cf. Anson, 1964:344
43. The O.E. Library Critic, December 20th, 1922
44. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:140
45. The boys included: Harold Morton, Oscar Kollerstrom, Water Hesselman, Hugh Noall, Fritz Kunz, Stephen Leigh, Rein Vreede and William Heyting.
46. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:140
48. Various movements in the 1920's sought a return to what they understood to be the "pure Theosophy" of HPB. Several of them were known by names which included the words "Blavatsky" or "Loyalty". Some broke from the Adyar or Point Loma societies, and established themselves as independent movements - for example, the United Lodge of Theosophists, The Society of the Divine Wisdom, The Blavatsky Association, The Blavatsky Institute. Some unsuccessful attempts have been made to unite them all, but they did all agree in rejecting Leadbeater, the LCC and associated movements. Cf. Spinks, 1957.
49. Senator Matthew Reid was a member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly for Toowong, 1893-6, and for Ennogen, 1899-1902. He represented Queensland in the Senate, 1917-1934. He assisted Mrs Besant with the drafting of her "Commonwealth of India Bill".
50. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:140
51. John Prentice joined the TS in 1906; a detailed biography of him will appear in John Cooper's MA thesis on Theosophy in Sydney.
52. See Dawn, May 1st, 1922
53. See Dawn, March 1st, 1923
54. Mary Lutyens (1975:143) suggests that Martyn believed Leadbeater to be "pure", but claimed to have proof of Wedgwood's immorality. This is not what Martyn suggests either in his letter to Mrs Besant, or in his evidence to the Police enquiry. Miss Lutyens also suggests that Martyn
initially despised Wedgwood because he seduced Mrs Martyn whilst staying in their home. This seems highly unlikely given Wedgwood's sexual tastes, although he did have many devoted female followers and may, more probably, have led Mrs Martyn into believing that an affair was going to happen. Mrs Martyn loathed both Wedgwood and Leadbeater, according to her daughter (in an interview with John Cooper).
55. Cf. Nethercot, 1963:323.
56. In Theosophy in Australia, February, 1922
57. The author had access to Mrs Besant's collection of newspaper cuttings in the TS Archives at Adyar, and this includes several volumes of cuttings from Australia. In addition, most of the Australian newspaper reports are included in the State Archives file of the Police enquiry. [AR]
58. In Theosophy in Australia, June, 1922
59. Special Bundle 7792.2, in the State Archives of New South Wales, a complete copy of which is now in the author's own collection. In 1980, a priest of the LCC, Ian Hooker, who was undertaking research on the history of the LCC in the Department of Religious Studies at the University of Sydney for the degree of Master of Arts, stated that the archival material had been destroyed. He said this had been told to him by the Presiding Bishop of the LCC, Sten von Krusenstierna, who lives in Sydney. However, the material remains intact, and has been consulted by the author in 1980, in addition to a detailed study made of it in 1978.
60. For the origins of the investigation, see the previous chapter.
61. King, 1971;141. Martyn was not the only person who speculated on possible relationships between homosexuality and Liberal Catholicism. Frank Pigott, the Church's third Presiding Bishop, enquired of Dr Ronald Rivett (currently Vicar General of the LCC in Australia) whether he could suggest why the first three LCC Presiding Bishops (i.e. Wedgwood, Leadbeater and Pigott) had been homosexual (interview with Dr Rivett, 1978). Bishop King was also involved in allegations of homosexuality, as were a number of LCC priests. In later years, another bishop, Johan Bonjer, would be linked with Wedgwood in a similar scandal.
62. Document in the State Archives file.
66. Codd, 1951:288. Cf. Nethercot, 1963:323.
67. Precis of the Leadbeater Police Enquiry, nd:l. The precis is believed to have been written by E.L. Grieg. Copies of it were seen in the archives of Point Loma Publications in San Diego, California, and in the private collection of John Cooper. There is also a copy in the author's private collection. [PL, JC, *]
70. Material on the history of the Independent Theosophical Society can be found throughout Dawn. The author has obtained details of the split in the Sydney TS from John Cooper, who has undertaken research into it for a Master of Arts degree in the Department of Religious Studies at the University of Sydney.
71. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:145
72. Quoted in the (Sydney) Daily Telegraph, May 18, 1922.
73. Mrs Besant's sermons at the Church of St Alban were on Theosophical interpretations of Christianity, and were afterwards published as Theosophical Christianity - cf. Besant, 1922.
74. Dawn, May 1st, 1922
75. Ibid: September 1st, 1922
76. Cf. Jinarajadasa, 1951:3-6
77. Quoted in The Disciple, August, 1922
78. Cf. Dawn, September 1st, 1922
79. Cf. Dawn, November 1, 1922
80. Wadia, 1922:8
--- 1043 ---
82. For Alice Leighton Cleather (1854-1938), cf.
Cleather, 1923, and her obituary in The Pendragon, Mid-summer, 1938. Ironically - given her abhorrence of Leadbeater and the OSE - Mrs Cleather had the fraternal name of "Alcyone" in the Ancient Order of Druid Hermeticists.
83. Cleather, 1922a:6
84. Mrs Cleather's three books followed a common theme: H.P. Blavatsky. A Great Betrayal (1922a), H.P. Blavatsky. Her Life and Work for Humanity (1922b), and H.P. Blavatsky. As I Knew Her (1923).
85. In The Theosophist, March, 1922.
86. See the concluding chapter of this work for a consideration of Leadbeater's claim to be a pupil of HPB.
87. Colonel J.H. Prentice joined the TS in 1906 at the age of 21, and worked actively for it. He was expelled in 1923 amongst other "trouble-makers" of the Sydney Lodge, and had a particular dislike of Leadbeater. Cf. Nethercot, 1963:323.
88. See van Manen, (1922).
89. Quoted in Codd, 1951:296
90. Dion Fortune was the nom-de-plume of Mrs Violet Evans (1891-1946), a well-known writer on magic and occultism. She led a group known as the Fraternity of the Inner Light, for details of her work, cf. King, 1970;156-8; Colquhoun, 1975:184-9, 217-9 and King and Sutherland, 1982:144-57.
91. Cf. King, 1971, chapter 12. Crowley later became a strong opponent of Co-Masonry in general, and of Wedgwood in particular, claiming it and he were destroying Masonry by "dragging it into the mire, to chain it to the chariot wheels of a Krishnanurti, to make us pander to the senile sodomite." See The Equinox, Vol. 1, No. 10.
92. For a detailed description of The Manor, see The Disciple, July, 1936:111-4. The author stayed briefly at The Manor in 1969, and in 1976 interviewed the then Head of The Manor, James Perkins, on the history of the house.
93. The Manor remains the "occult centre" for Australia, owned by The Manor Foundation, which is controlled by the ES. The current Head of The Manor is the
Corresponding Secretary of the ES in Australia, Norman Hankin.
94. Cf. Jinarajadasa, 1951:7. The debt was finally paid in May, 1936. The Manor Foundation was created as a company registered in New South Wales on August 15th, 1951. The Outer Head of the ES is always the Chairman of the Board of Directors.
Chapter 19: Notes
1. For the Ojai community, cf. Kagan, 1975:71-83.
2. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:147
9. For the Third Initiation and its requirements, cf. *The Masters and the Path, 1952:221-2.
10. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:163
13. The Theosophist, February, 1923:448
14. This could have been either The Theosophic Voice, published in Chicago and edited by Dr Eleanor Hiestand-Moore, or The O.E. Library Critic, published in Washington, DC, by H.N. Stokes.
15. The Theosophist, February, 1923:453
17. The Theosophist, May, 1923:123
19. Dawn, May 1, 1923:15
20. For the full reply, see The O.E. Library Critic, July 19, 1922.
21. Cf. The Theosophist, August, 1922.
22. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:171
23. Australian Star News, January 11, 1927:67
24. Smith's Weekly, August 9, 1924.
25. The Star in the East, July, 1924:4
26. The Star in the East, Amphitheatre Report Number, January, 1924
27. The amphitheatre - complete with metal plates bearing the names of disciples - features in Sumner Locke Elliott's novel, Careful, He Might Hear You (Victor Gollancz, London, 1963:119-20). During the making of a film from the book (directed by Carl Schultz and produced by Jill Robb) in 1983 the amphitheatre was recreated in the south-east corner of Waverley Cemetery, using a 300 member film crew, a cast of 200 extras and a crane. The timber and fibre-glass replica was constructed on the cliff edge. But the scene filmed there was not included in the final version of the film. Cf. Weekly-Courier (Waverley), January 25, 1983.
28. The Star in the East, Amphitheatre Watchers' Number, July, 1924. For the history of the amphitheatre, cf., Roe, 1980.
29. Cf. Dawn, September 1, 1923, for a summary of the press coverage.
30. Quoted in Jinarajadasa, 1952:59
31. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:182-3
--- 1046 ---
34. Interview with Rex Henry, Wedgwood's secretary in the Paris period, who translated his doctoral thesis into French, (Adyar, 1979, and Mijas (Spain), 1982, and letters from him). Mr Henry's Liberal Catholic liturgy, presented to him when he was ordained a priest by Wedgwood, bears inscriptions from Wedgwood, as well as an Old Catholic priest and a Russian Orthodox priest with whom Wedgwood was friendly at this time.
37. Frank Waters Pigott (1874-1956), MA (Oxon), joined the TS in 1909 when he was an Anglican clergyman, and thereafter had difficulties with church authorities. For biographical material, see the "F.W. Pigott Memorial Number" of The Liberal Catholic, April, 1956.
38. Dr Johannes Jacobus van der Leeuw (1893-1934), LLD (Leyden) joined the TS in 1914, became a priest of the LCC in 1921, and was General Secretary of the TS in the Netherlands, 1930-1. In 1925 he won the Subba Row medal for his book, The Fire of Creation. He had independent means and was able to devote himself completely to Theosophy. Some of his books were based on his own clairvoyant investigations. After retiring from TS work, he repudiated his former views, lost faith in Leadbeater's claims, and became disillusioned. Cf. Hooker, 1980:420.
39. The Star in the East, July, 1924:4
40. Ibid: October, 1924-January, 1925:4. Even in 1982 the myth of Krishna's walking on the waters of Sydney Harbour re-surfaced in an "Historical Feature" in a Sydney newspaper which stated: "Here, in Leadbeater's inspired vision, the Messiah would come gliding across the water to proclaim himself to His chosen people." It also declared that "Today the amphitheatre is a ruin", suggesting either the article was written a long time ago, and resurrected, or that the writer was rather out of touch with the Balmoral beachside. See The Daily Mirror, March 10, 1982:62.
41. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:198
42. Emily Lutyens, 1957:116
43. Mary Lutyens, 1975:202
44. The author resided at The Manor (although he was not permitted, not being a member of the ES, to stay in the
main building) in 1971, and re-visited it to interview the then Head, James Perkins, in 1975, and again in 1980 to interview Ian Hooker; on each occasion he was taken on a tour of the building (except for those portions closed to non-members). Dick Balfour-Clarke gave the author three photographs of the interior of Leadbeater's room, prepared for use as a Masonic Temple, and these clearly show the extent of the "copper lining". The room became a shrine room after Leadbeater's departure from The Manor.
45. Mary Lutyens, 1975:203
46. Emily Lutyens, 1:57:117
47. Mary Lutyens, 1975:203. Cf. C.W. Leadbeater and Fritz Kunz, "The Personality of Rocks", in The Liberal Catholic, October, 1947:236-7.
48. Mary Lutyens, 1975:205
49. Several pupils of Leadbeater, who lived with him during this time, told the author of long periods of boredom, punctuated by Leadbeater's occasional appearances. They learnt little about Theosophy, but were told that they were being "brought on" merely by being in the environment of the occult centre. Interviews with Mary Lutyens (London, 1978), Dora Kunz and Paula Mango (Adyar, 1979).
50. Elisabeth Lutyens, 1972:36
52. Mary Lutyens, 1975:204
55. Mary Lutyens, 1959:163
56. Emily Lutyens, 1957:131
57. The account of Arundale's revelations given is based on material in Emily Lutyens, 1957, Mary Lutyens, 1959 and 1975, and Arthur Nethercot, 1963, together with confirmation of that material given in interviews with Rex Henry (Adyar, 1979), Mary Lutyens (London, 1978), and John Coats (Adyar, 1979), as well as contemporary accounts published in Theosophical journals. However, the only surviving "Apostle", Rukmini Devi Arundale, denies that this account is accurate, and states that the events are
--- 1048 ---
misrepresented in the books mentioned. In an interview with the author (Adyar, 1979) she stated that her late husband had never received revelations or "messages", did not claim to have received instructions from the Masters, and was not responsible for the idea of the Apostles (which she stated was a spontaneous statement of Mrs Besant's). Likewise, she denied that the "Apostles" were ever meant to possess any great occult or spiritual status, and were merely meant to refer to those who worked closely with Krishna. It was a poetic expression of Mrs Besant's. Mrs Arundale also attributes the suggestion of a visit to Hungary to Mrs Besant, but denies that it was ever intended as a journey to the Master's Castle; it was merely a holiday planned by Wedgwood and Kollerstrom. Mrs Arundale stated that her late husband had often been "impressed" with ideas, but had never received "messages" as such. These statements totally contradict all published sources, and all information obtained in interviews with others who had been present.
58. Emily Lutyens, 1957:133, includes herself, Theodore St John and Rajagopal in the list of Apostles, but not Oscar Kollerstrom. He was omitted at his own request out of concern that such an association could damage his professional career as a psychoanalyst. See Mary Lutyens, 1975:213; she includes her mother's name and that of Oscar Kollerstrom, but omits Theodore St John. In her speech announcing the Apostles, Mrs Besant names only herself, Leadbeater, Jinarajadasa, Kollerstrom, Arundale, Rukmini and Wedgwood, though she said the twelve had been chosen. Cf. Star Congress at Ommen, 1925, and Herald of the Star, September, 1925.
59. Star Congress at Ommen, 1925:7
60. Cf. The O.E. Library Critic, December 2, 1925
61. Star Congress at Ommen, 1925:164
63. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:233
64. Wood, 1965:10
65. Interview with Balfour-Clarke, Adyar, 1979. According to John Prentice, Leadbeater wrote to Mrs Besant repudiating the Apostles and the other revelations. She replied with a long letter stating that, if he doubted her word, her only course would be to resign as President of the TS. This compelled him to at least keep his opinions to himself and not actively oppose the revelations. See
66. Editorial in The Liberal Catholic, February, 1964:150
68. Henri Pascal Bazireau, who was French, but called himself Prince Mirzki, or Lubomirzki, and claimed to be Russian and/or Polish, had a shadowy presence in these events. Information from interview with and letters from Rex Henry (Adyar, 1979, and Mijas (Spain), 1982).
69. This account of the visit to the Master's Castle was compiled from published sources, including Emily Lutyens, 1957, Mary Lutyens, 1975, and Nethercot, 1963, together with interviews with Mary Lutyens (London, 1979), Brigit Kollerstrom (London, 1978), Rukmini Arundale (Adyar, 1979) And Rex Henry (Adyar, 1979, and Mijas (Spain), 1982).
70. *The Masters and the Path, 1952:137
71. Annie Besant, The Coming of the World Teacher, 1925:4
72. Professor J. Emile Marcault, NA, LLB, was Professor of Psychology and French Literature at the University of Claremont, 1909-17, the University of Grenoble and the University of Pisa, 1917-24.
73. Interviews with Mary Lutyens (London, 1978) and Rex Henry (Adyar, 1979, and Mijas (Spain), 1982).
74. Mary Lutyens, 1975:220
75. Emily Lutyens, 1957:140
76. Whereas in orthodox Freemasonry there is a very limited number of Masons above the 30th Degree, and the 33rd Degree is normally awarded as a recognition of long and devoted service to the Craft, in Co-Masonry there are considerably more since progress to the 33rd Degree has often been seen as part of the scheme of spiritual development which Co-Masonry provides. Both Wedgwood ind Leadbeater frequently conferred the higher degrees on their disciples. Interviews with Rex Henry (Adyar, 1979) and Dick Balfour-Clarke (Adyar, 1982).
77. This occurred during a tour of Java; the Mason who was elevated in the cloak room was Dick Balfour-Clarke, who told the author this story (Adyar, 1979).
78. Emily Lutyens, 1957:141
79. The Three World Movements, 1926:82-3
80. Quoted in Codd, 1926:361. This, and other material, was deleted from the second edition of this work in 1953.
81. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:224
82. Liberal Catholic Church, Summaries of the Proceedings of the First and Second Episcopal Synods 1924 and 1926, nd:13
83. Emily Lutyens, 1957:141
84. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:228
86. The boy was removed from the Theosophical school, and The Manor, by his grandfather, who regarded the Theosophical movement with distrust. For a rather confused version of these events, see Trader Falkner, Peter Finch: A Biography, Angus and Robertson, London, 1979:27-37. Cf. Elaine Dundy, Finch, Bloody Finch. A Biography of Peter Finch, Michael Joseph, London, 1980:35-43. Finch's confirmation is entry Number 794 in the Register of St Alban's Cathedral, Sydney.
87. The O.E. Library Critic, December 2, 1925.
88. Truth, October 11 and 18, 1925, and Smith's Weekly, December 26, 1925.
89. Josephine Ransom, 1938:472, claimed that the book was "based on teachings given by the Master K.H. to a group of pupils about 1897", which in inherently improbable. There are interesting parallels to the teachings of Alice Bailey - cf. chapter 22.
90. The O.E. Library Critic, February 10, 1926.
91. Ibid: January 27, 1926.
92. Mary Lutyens, 1975:241.
Chapter 20: Notes
1. The author had access to Mrs Besant's press cuttings books in the TS Archives at Adyar in 1979; these included extensive material from the press in the USA at this time. [AR]
2. See Mary Lutyens, 1975:242.
3. This statement was published in Reincarnation, September, 1926-January, 1927; also in The O.E. Library Critic, April, 1928.
4. The disciples who broke with Leadbeater included Ernest Wood, B.P. Wadia, Weller van Hook and his son, Hubert, Basil Hodgson-Smith and, apparently, Johan van Manen.
5. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:245
6. Quoted in ibid:249. According to Jinarajadasa, Krishna never used the personal pronoun in his addresses prior to 1925, but after that memorable address it began to appear. Jinarajadasa recorded that he asked Krishna what had happened, and he replied that "all went black" and then he awoke to find the lecture finished. Cf. Jinarajadasa, 1949.
7. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:249
8. Quoted in ibid:250
10. This was, of course, contrary to the Master's instructions, received via Leadbeater, that he must be trained carefully in Theosophy. Oddly enough, most of Leadbeater's pupils still living with whom the author discussed the matter - including Dora Kunz, Dick Balfour-Clarke, Paula Mango, and Mary Lutyens - said they received no education in Theosophy from him, apart from the lectures they attended at TS lodges.
11. The Australian Theosophist, February, 1927:46
12. *The Occult-History of Java, 1951:43-4
13. Cf. The O.E. Library Critic, August, 1928
14. The Australian Theosophist, October, 1927
15. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:255
--- 1052 ---
16. Rukmini Devi Arundale stated in an interview with the author (Adyar, 1979) that she had never regarded the concept of representing the World Mother in the way which it has come to be interpreted, but thought it simply meant doing work in the arts and for humanity (as in the work she is currently doing at the Kalekshetra school of dance, and for various welfare organizations in India). She denied ever being a "representative" of the World Mother, and said that the published accounts (for example, Emily Lutyens, 1957; Mary Lutyens, 1975; Nethercot, 1963) misrepresented what had happened.
17. Annie Besant, 1939:84
18. *The World Mother as Symbol and Fact, 1928
19. The Masters and the Path, 1953:286 20 Ibid:288
21. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:258
22. New India, November 15, 1928
23. Details of the "Seven Virgins of Java" were obtained in an interview with one of them, Paula Mango (Adyar, 1979), and from Dick Balfour-Clarke. (Adyar, 1979). Towards the end of his life, Leadbeater began to take girl pupils.
24. *The World Mother, May, 1928
25. Cf. St Michael's News (Huizen), May, 1959
26. Duncan Greenlees, The World Teacher or Man of the World, n.d.
27. Cf. Ransom, 1938:484
28. Interviews with Paula Mango and Dick Balfour-Clarke (Adyar, 1979).
29. The Australian Theosophist, October, 1928:65
31. Ibid: December, 1928:135'
32. The Theosophist, June, 1929
33. The O.E. Library Critic, September, 1929
34. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:272
38. Ibid:275. After the dissolution of the Order, five "purely business" organizations were established to manage the affairs of its property: the Star Publishing Trust, the Eerde Foundation (Holland), Ojai Camp Corporation (California), Rishi Valley Trust (India), and the Amphitheatre Trust (Sydney). See The O.E. Library Critic, September, 1929, and Mary Lutyens,1981:17-28.
39. International Star Bulletin, August, 1929:14, 17
40. Hubart Johan Bonjer (?-1972) was a friend of Wedgwood. He was consecrated as Auxiliary Bishop for Holland in 1928, became Suffragan Bishop in 1930, resigned in 1935, was appointed Regionary Bishop for South Africa in 1948, resigned in 1949, and had his membership of the Church terminated on September 16th, 1959, for unlawfully consecrating another Liberal Catholic Priest to the episcopate.
41. Cf. Ransom, 1938:484. The ES was partly re-opened in December, 1929, and by 1934 was partially restored. By November, 1932, it was completely functional again. Jinarajadasa was involved in its re-organization.
42. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:277
43. Cf. Wedgwood's A Tract for the Times, 1928, and Present Day Problems, 1929.
44. Leadbeater's statements were reported in interviews with Dick Balfour-Clarke (Adyar, 1979), Mary Lutyens (London, 1978), Paula Mango (Adyar, 1979), Rukmini Arundale (Adyar, 1979).
45. Reported in an interview with Dick Balfour-Clarke (Adyar, 1979).
46. Theosophy Past and Future, 1930:30
47. Quoted in Mary Lutyens, 1975:277
48. Duncan Greenlees, World Teacher of Man of the
49. The Australian Theosophist, April, 1930:13
50. Liberal Catholic Church, Statement of Principles..., 1926:16-7
51. Liberal Catholic Church, Summary of Proceedings of the Third Episcopal Synod, n.d.:4
52. The Liberal Catholic, October, 1944:116
53. The O.E. Library Critic, July, 1930
54. Ibid; February, 1930
55. Daily Pictorial (Sydney), March 13th, 1930
56. The Australian Theosophist, March, 1930
57. Quoted in The O.E. Library Critic, July, 1930, and published in The Australian Theosophist, April, 1930, The Liberal Catholic, May, 1930, The Adyar Theosophist, May, 1930, The Messenger, July, 1930, and other Theosophical ,journals.
58. Marie Hotchener, "Symposium, The Geneva Congress", in The Theosophist, September, 1930:753-80
59. Cf. The Theosophist, September, 1930:773
60. "On the Watchtower", The Theosophist, September, 1930:743-7
61. Ernest Waldemar Nyssens (?-1956) was consecrated as Auxiliary Bishop for Europe, and became Regionary Bishop for West Central Europe in 1935, resigning in 1937. John Cordes (? -1960) was an Austrian, who had been responsible for Krishna's physical training at Adyar, 1910-11. He was consecrated as Auxiliary Bishop for Europe, becoming Regionary Bishop for East Central Europe in 1935, and Regionary Bishop for South Africa in 1940. He resigned in 1947.
62. The Theosophist, September, 3930:749-50
63. From a letter from E.L. Gardner to Boris da Zirkoff, April 9th, 1965, in the archives of Point Loma Publications, San Diego.
64. Ibid: May 22nd, 1965.
65. Cf. The Canadian Theosophist, May, 1940
66. The O.E. Library Critic, September, 1932.
67. Star Bulletin, January, 1931:24
Chapter 21: Notes
1. Leadbeater had said that the announcements of the Apostles and associated revelations had "done more to hinder the Coming of the Lord than anything else", and had already declared privately at Adyar in 1927 that "The Coming has gone wrong". See Vreede, 1964:149. Confirmed by interviews with Paula Mango and Dick Balfour-Clarke (Adyar, 1979).
2. Oscar Kollerstrom left Australia with Wedgwood in 1918, and travelled to Europe, where he studied at Cambridge, graduating with a BA. He visited Australia after his father's death in June, 1927, but returned to Europe to study psychoanalysis with Georg Groddeck at Baden Baden, and travel extensively using the legacy he received under his father's will. In 1925, he visited Huizen, after having effectively drifted away from all Theosophical activities, and was named as one of the Apostles. His widow declared that he was shocked by this, but did nothing to repudiate it. Thereafter he resumed his studies with Groddeck, and spent several years teaching philosophy at the University of Peking. He periodically returned to Europe, and was involved in Wedgwood's treatment under Groddeck. In the 1930's he established a psychoanalytical practice in London, and had no further association with the TS or associated movements. Based on interview with Brigit Kollerstrom (London, 1978), and recording of interview by Michael Godby of Oscar Kollerstrom, made available by Michael Godby.
3. Wedgwood's illness was the result of syphilis contracted as the result of his homosexual activities. The disease eventually led to insanity, although there were lucid periods when he wrote for various journals, notably The Liberal Catholic. Information from interviews with Rex Henry (Adyar, 1979, and Mijas, Spain, 1982), and the Very Reverend Dr Ron Rivett, Vicar General of tfe LCC in Australia (Sydney, 1976). The illness was seen by his disciples as Wedgwood's "Crucifixion" - cf. St Michael's News, April, 1951.
4. Jinarajadasa, (1940)
--- 1056 ---
5. For Lady Emily's disillusionment, cf. Emily Lutyens, 1957:175-88.
6. Van der leeuw, 1930:25-6
8. For the history of Point Loma after Mrs Tingley, cf. Campbell, 1980:140-2, and Greenwalt, 1978:194-206.
9. The statistics are derived from reports given to Annual Conventions, and published in The Theosophist at the beginning of each year, and tables published in various works, including Besant, 1939.
10. Cf. The O.E. Library Critic, October, 1928.
11. Henry, 1979:162
12. The census figures frog the table on religion in the reports of the censuses of the Commonwealth of Australia. See Appendix 4.
13. Wood, (1936):310
14. For Mrs Besant's last year, cf. Nethercot, 1964:452-8
15. Wood, (1936):313
17. The originals of the Mahatma letters are deposited in the Manuscripts Department of the British Library in London. A.P. Sinnett had based his books The Occult World (1881) and Esoteric Buddhism (1888) on the letters he had received, and A.O. Hume (1629-1912), a government official in India, based his book, Hints on Esoteric Theosophy (1882) on letters he had received.
18. Cf. Barker (Ed), 1930
19. For discussions of the authorship of the letters, cf. Harold and William Hare, Who Wrote the Mahatma Letters? Williams and Norgate, London, 1936, and C. Jinarajadasa, Did Madame Blavatsk Forge the Mahatma Letters?, TPH Adyar, 1934.
20. Cf. Morgan, 1978 and Thomas, n.d. The major areas of conflict between Leadbeater's teachings and those of the
--- 1057 ---
Mahatma letters concern: the nature of the Logos, the value of religion, the nature of Jesus Christ, the Church, the value of confession and absolution, the Coming of the Maitreya, whether Mars and Mercury are part of the earth's evolutionary scheme, whether there is an "abiding principle" in man, the nature of the astral body and the monad, life after death, and a number of others. For example, in the case of life after death, the Mahatma letters argue that after death man is in "a quiet blissful sleep" and mentally "annihilated", and that communication between the living and the dead is virtually impossible. Leadbeater taught that man continues to function almost exactly as when alive, except that he no longer has a physical body, and that communication is easy.
21. Quoted in The O.E. Library Critic, May-June, 1937.
22. Ernest Armine Wodehouse (?-1936) was the brother of the writer P.G. Wodehouse, and had been Professor of English Literature at Elphinstone College, Bombay and Professor of English at the Central Hindu College, Benares. He wrote several hymns for use in the Temple of the Rosy Cross, and the LCC.
23. The Australian Theosophist, November, 1930:85
24. The Theosophist, September, 1932:744
25. Cf. The Australian Theosophist, March, 1931:5 and Theosophical News and Notes, July, 1928:6
26. Wood, (1936):287
27. The Occult History of Java, published posthumously in 1951.
28. Kay Maddox served Leadbeater as stenographer for several years, before becoming his private secretary. She was active in Co-Masonry, and became the Administrator General, of the Order in Australia.
29. Information on the ER was obtained in interviews with Paula Mango and Dick Balfour-Clarke (Adyar, 1979), Rex Henry (Adyar, 1979 and Mijas, Spain, 1982), and correspondence with Rex Henry (1980-3) and Dr J.H. Dubbink, a member of the TS in The Netherlands (1983). A copy of the Ritual is in the collection of tue British Library where it was consulted in 1978. [BL]
30. Egyptian Rite, 1932:5
31. The Theosophist, January, 1931
32. The O.E. Library Critic, February, 1931
33. St Michael's News, October, 1950
34. The Theosophist, October, 1931:44-5
35. Williams, 1931. For the original Svengali, cf. George du Maurier, George du Maurier's Trilby, Peter Alexander, compiler, W.H. Allen, London, 1982.
36. Ransom, 1931,3:503
37. David Morton Tweedie (11357-1941) joined the TS in 1910 in Australia, and became one of the first Liberal Catholic (or, as it was known then, Old Catholic) priests in Australia in 1916. He was Regionary Bishop for Australia, 1931-1941. The following Bishops were consecrated by Leadbeater: Frank Waters Pigott (1924), John Ross Thomason (1924), John Walker (1924), John Moynihan Tettemer (1926), Ray Marshall Wardall (1926), John Cordes (1930), Ernest Waldemar Nyssens (1930) and David Morton Tweedie (1932). Leadbeater assisted Wedgwood at the consecrations of Julian Adrian Mazle (1917) and Irving Steiger Cooper (1919).
38. Cf. *Occult Chemistry (revised and enlarged edition), 194?.
39. Cf. Jinarajadasa, 1938:98-100
40. Ransom, 1938:507
41. At the beginning of 1934 both The Young Theosophist and The New Zealand Theosophist published Leadbeater's "From Beyond the gates of Death", which consisted of messages from Mrs Besant via Leadbeater.
42. Arundale, 1941
43. E.S.T. Letter, December, 1948:5-11
44. The Canadian Theosophist, October, 1933:248
45. The New York Times, October 22, 1933 - cutting seen in Mrs Besant's cuttings books, TS Archives, Adyar.
46. Cf. Two Letters of Dr Besant, edited by C. Jinarajadasa, published by the author, Adyar, October 3, 1933; the letters are dated September 6, 1926, and October
47. The author was told that Leadbeater's correspondence with Mrs Besant is in the archives of the ES at Adyar, and Ransom, 1936, makes reference to it. After Leadbeater's death, Jinarajadasa ordered that all his papers in Sydney be packed and sent to Adyar, so that, despite his long residence in Sydney, both the TS and The Manor Archives there claim to have virtually none of his papers. Information from interviews with Radha Burnier, John Coats, and Jean Raymond (Adyar, 1979), Jim Perkins (Sydney, 1975), Jack Patterson and Ian Hooker (Sydney, 1980).
48. Information from interview with Dick Balfour-Clarke (Adyar, 1979). J.M. Prentice claimed to have heard Leadbeater say of the Indians, "The best of them is not as good as the worst of us." See Prentice, Charles Webster Leadbeater, n.d.:2
49. The Theosophist, May, 1934:141
50. Ibid: April, 1934, contains full details of the funeral.
53. Ibid: May, 1934:151
55. The Liberal Catholic, April, 1934:290
56. The Times, March 2nd, 1934; corrections published March 5th and 7th.
57. The Hindu, March 2nd, 1934
58. Daily Telegraph (Sydney), March 2nd, 1934
59. The New Statesmen, March 10th, 1934:338
60. The Canadian Theosophist, June, 1934
61. The International Theosophical Year Book, 1937:220
62. cf. The Theosophist, July, 1934:481-4
63. Ernest Wood amassed a huge collection of notes
and cuttings on Theosophy generally and Leadbeater in particular, "weighing no less than thirty pounds, a mine of information which may possibly be sorted and edited by somebody after my death". Wood, 1965:6. But, after his death, this invaluable archive seems to have disappeared.
64. The Liberal Catholic, September, 1934
65. The Theosophist, January, 1937:292
66. Theosophy in Australia, November, 1938
67. The Theosophical Worker, June, 1939:154
Chapter 22: Notes
1. The Bishop was Charles Shores (18813--1979) who resided at Adyar until his death in February, 1979, at the age of 91. He had been consecrated in London in 1946 as Auxiliary Bishop for India; from 1953 to 1958 he was Auxiliary Bishop in Australia, and then returned as Bishop Commisary for India. The story was told both by Dick Balfour-Clarke, and by the Rev. John Clarke, a Liberal Catholic Priest on the TS Estate at Adyar who was also Assistant Editor of The Theosophist (Adyar, 1979).
2. For Krishnamurti's life, cf. Mary Lutyens, 1975 and 1981. For his teachings, cf. Shringy, 1977 and Vas, 1975. Cf. Weeraperuma, 1974 and 1982 for detailed bibliographies of works by and about Krishna, including dissertations and theses.
3. When the author was at Adyar in December, 1979, Krishnamurti gave a series of addresses at his Indian headquarters, not far from the TS estate. The Library on the estate closed early on the days of his addresses, and virtually everyone (except Rukmini Devi Arundale and her associates) from the estate travelled to the house where Krishna was to talk. Many officials of the TS, the ES, Co-Masonry and associated movements sat, in some cases literally, at the feet of a teacher who spoke of the illusion of the Masters, the irrelevance of secret teachings, and similar things. Some of those who attended said that they did so to order to "bathe in Krishna's aura"; the author was told that listening to what Krishna was saying was less important than simply being in his presence.
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4. For the development of Krishnamurti's work since
the dissolution of the Order of the Star, cf. Mary Lutyens, 1981.
5. Mrs Rukmini Devi Arundale, in an interview at Adyar in 1979, specifically denied that her husband had ever received messages or given out revelations from the Masters. However, the Outer Head of the ES, Radha Burnier, in an interview (Adyar, 1979), stated that messages from the Masters, and details of Initiations continued to be given out until Arundale's death. Ian Hooker, an official of the ES in Australia, in an interview (Sydney, 1980), stated that such messages and statements continued into Sri Ram's period of Presidency. For details of Arundale's Presidency, cf. Ransom, 1950:54-162. For Mrs Arundale's career, cf. Savada, 1985.
6. For details of Jinarajadasa's Presidency, cf. Ransom, 1950:163-217 and the C. Jinarajadasa Centenary Number of The Theosophist, December, 1975.
7. For an insider's view of the events surrounding Wedgwood's death, cf. Potter, 1978.
8. St Michael's News, April, 1951:89
9. Professor van der Stok, in St Michael's News, April, 1951:91
10. Letter from E.L. Gardner to Dick Balfour-Clarke, seen at Adyar, 1979.
11. Information on Kollerstrom from interviews with Brigit Kollerstro'm (London, 1978), Rex Henry (Adyar, 1979, and Mijas, Spain, 1982) and Mary Lutyens (London, 1976); also recording of interview of Kollerstrom by Michael Godby in collection of author. For Kollerstrom's later work on liturgy, see Kollerstrom, 1974.
12. Information from recording of interview of Kollerstrom by Michael Godby in collection of author.
13. The Liberal Catholic, February, 1964, Editorial.
14. Information from interview with Dick Balfour-Clarke (Adyar, 1979)
15. For Rajagopal's later career, cf. Mary Lutyens, 1981.
16. See Nethercot, 1964:193
17. C. Jinarajadasa, EST [Letter], April, 1951:6
18. Information from interview with Dora Kunz (Adyar, 1979). Cf. her The Real World of Fairies (under her maiden name, Dora van Gelder), Quest Books, Wheaton, 1978.
19. Interview with Paula Mango (Adyar, 1979)
20. Letter from Harold Horton to Dick Balfour-Clarke, seen at Adyar, 1979.
21. David Barrett in The World Christian Encyclopedia, Oxford University Press, Nairobi, 1982:792 claims that there were 6,210 Theosophists in 1970, 6,722 in 1975, and 7,179 in 1980. He does not define "Theosophist". If he means members of the major Theosophical groups, his figures are in conflict with the evidence and are far too high. There is general consensus amongst the major groups - the Adyar-based TS (which publishes its figures), the TS International and the United Lodge of Theosophists (neither of which releases membership figures) that numbers have been declining. For details of Theosophical movements and derivatives, cf. J. Gordon Melton, Encyclopedia of American Religions, McGrath, Wilmington, 1973, vol. 2:135-164.
22. See Adyar News, January 3rd, 1936:7
23. For the Centenary celebrations, cf. The Theosophical Society Centenary 1875-1975 (October/November, 1975), The C. Jinarajadasa Centenary "lumber and The Theosophical Centenary 1875-1975 (December, 1975), Centenary World Congress New York 1875-1975 (January, 1976) and International Centenary Convention 1875-1975 (February, 1976) issues of The Theosophist.
24. See Jinarajadasa's introduction in van den Broek, 1951.
25. David Barrett in The World Christian Encyclopedia, above cit:832, gives the following figures for the Liberal Catholics (within which he includes "27 denominations"): 1970 - 51,700; 1975 - 87,900; 1980 - 120,000. He predicts a figure of 137,000 for 1985. These figures are very obviously highly inflated, and it is improbable that the LCC is larger than the TS. The London-based LCC is the largest grouping, and the others range from the small to the miniscule. Barrett gives the following regional statistics for the Liberal Catholic Church (again including all groups that consider themselves within that movement):
Country - Congregations - Adults - Adherents
Australia - 12 - 500 - 2,000
Canada - 5 - 250 - 1,000
France - 9 - 400 - 600
Netherlands - 15 - 800 - 1,120
New Zealand - 2 - 300 - 462
Sweden - 5 - 100 - 300
United Kingdom - 21 - 995 - 1,250
United States - 21 - 2,000 - 4,000
The totals of these countries, which contain the vast majority of Liberal Catholics, for both adult membership (5,345) and adherents (10,732) differ significantly from the claimed world total (51,700) for the same year (1970). Barrett's figures for the LCC in Australia show 12 congregations, 500 members, and 2,000 adherents. In 1982 the official Australian LCC journal listed fifteen congregations; attendance at the larger centres appears to average around 30, although at smaller centres it may be as low as 3. A generous estimate for average weekly attendance throughout Australia would be 200. Official membership figures are misleading since they include everyone who has ever been baptized or admitted to the Church, whether or not they remain active members, or hold concurrent membership in other churches or religions. For the current status of the Liberal Catholic Church, cf. 3. Gordon Melton, Encyclopedia of American Religions, McGrath, Wilmington, 1978, vol.2:149-55, and Arthur C. Piepkorn, Profiles in Belief. The Religious Bodies of the United States and Canada, Harper & Row, New York, 1977, vol.1:296-310. For a sociological study of the Liberal Catholic Church in the USA, cf. Platt, 1982. Platt (1982:44) cites the following figures for the LCC in the United States of America:
1926 - 1,799; 1936- 1,578; 1937 - 1,288; 1940 - 2,000; 1950 - 2,200; 1953 - 3,500; 1956 - 4,000; 1973 - 2,393
However, he notes that, on a typical Sunday, around 380 members of the laity and 100 clergy attended Liberal Catholic Churches in the USA (ibid:45).
26. Information on the ER was obtained from interviews with Rex Henry (Adyar, 1979 and Mijas, Spain,
1982), Dick Balfour-Clarke (Adyar, 1979) and Paula Mango (Adyar, 1979).
27. See The Disciple, August, 1935:55
28. For an account of the history of the amphitheatre, cf. Roe 1980.
29. For modern LCC developments, cf. Sten von Krusenstierna (Ed), Services of Our Lady, St Alban Press, London, 1982.
30. Details of the World Mother "succession" from interviews with Dick Balfour-Clarke (Adyar, 1979), Rex Henry (Adyar, 1979 and Mijas, Spain, 1982) and Paula Mango (Adyar, 1979).
31. Cf. Theosophy in Action, December, 1964:3
32. For the influence of Theosophy on education generally, cf. Webb, 1981:403-7 and W.A.C. Stewart, The Educational Innovators, vol. II, Macmillan, London, 1968, or accounts of Theosophical educational experiments in Australia, cf. R.C. Petersen, 1968 and 1969.
33. In interviews with officials of the TS at Adyar, 1979, both the then Vice President, Joy Mills, and the now President, Radha Burnier, talked openly about the contradictions. But public discussions of such matters virtually never happen.
34. In modern paperback format, Quest Books, an organ of the TPH in America, has published *Man Visible and Invisible, *Thought Forms, and *The Chakras, together with edited versions of other books by Leadbeater.
35. Shearman, 1954:59--60
36. One example is the American occult teacher, Max Heindel (i.e. Carl Louis van Grasshoff) (1865-1919) who claimed to have obtained his teachings from "genuine Rosicrucians" in Germany. The actual source was Rudolf Steiner and Theosophy. Although Heindel claims a "succession" from HPB, his Theosophy is more derived from Leadbeater, with some emphasis on "invisible helpers". Cf. Campbell, 1980:160-1.
37. Cf. Bede Gallery, 1977, and Webb, 1981:420-8.
38. Text by Alf Corlett, in Bede Gallery, 1977.
39. W. Kandinsky, Concerning the Spiritual in Art, Wittenborn, Nev York, 1947:29
40. Cf. Webb, 1981:421-3.
41. Bede Gallery, 1977:96
42. Ringbom, 1970.
44. Robsjohn-Gibbings, 1948.
45. See the chart in the front of all editions of *Man Visible and Invisible.
46. Robsjohn-Gibbings, 1948:86
47. The rival TS at Point Loma also had an influence on art: cf. Bruce Kamerling, "Theosophy and Symbolist Art: The Point Loma Art School", in Journal of San Diego History, Fall, 1960:231-55, and Greenwalt, 1978: chapter XI.
Chapter 23: Notes
1. Cf. *How Theosophy Came to Me, 1930:24-5
2. Amongst those involved in the TS in London at the time were: A.P. Sinnett (1840-1921), Dr Anna Kingsford (1846-1888), William Kingsland (1855-1936), Dr Archibald Keightley (1859-1930), Prof. William Crookes (1832-1919), Frank Podmore (1856-1910), H.W.H. Myers (1843-1901), Edmund Gurney (1847-1888), Charles Massey (1828-1907). The London Lodge held closed meetings, its only semi-public gatherings being for people from the upper-middle-classes who attended by special invitation.
3. Cf. Leadbeater's claims in *Talks on the Path of Occultism, 1926, val. 111:843.
4. Letter to the author, January 15th, 1980.
5. Cleather, 1922:69
6. Cf Morgan, nd, and Thomas, nd.
7. *Talks on the Path of Occultism, 1926, Vol.III:845
8. Sinnett, 1921:111
9. See, for example, *Clairvoyance, 1903:163-8
10. Cf. ibid: Chap. IX
11. Wood, 1936:141-2
12. The story was related by Dick Balfour-Clarke at Adyar, 1979. Cf. Arundale's 1925 address to the Wheaton Summer School (in TS in America: (1925)) in which he confirms that when training him in clairvoyance Leadbeater told him to "use his imagination".
13. Sir John Woodroffe ("Arthur Avalon") (1865-1936), an eminent author of works on tantra, was critical of Leadbeater's statements about the conscious raising of the "Serpent Fire" (kundalini) and contrasted this with the traditional Indian teachings. Cf. his The Serpent Power, Ganesh, Madras, 1973:6. Woodroffe was born in India, the son of the Advocate-General of Bengal, and served as a barrister in the High Court of Calcutta. He was appointed Chief Justice in 1915, and became Tagore Professor of Law at the University of Calcutta. After his retirement he was a Reader in Indian Law at Oxford. He translated a number of little known Indian scriptures, including Tarntric texts.
14. Leadbeater's attitude to the validity of Anglican Orders was an intesting case. He held that they were valid, but was re-ordained sub conditione by Wedgwood in 1916, and himself re-ordained Anglican clergy sub conditione if they wished to join the LCC. He did not appear to disagree with the arguments with which the Roman Catholic Church rejected the validity of Anglican Orders - essentially deficiencies in the rite of ordination - but held that the Lord Maitreya had told him that he (i.e. the Lord Maitreya) made up the deficiencies. This necessitated a new, magical view of ordination, with no dependence on the intent, and, seemingly, not much dependence on the rite.
15. Hugh Shearman, quoted in Gardner, 1964:10
16. Johan van Manen, "How the Vision was Analyzed", in The Theosophist, May, 1909.
17. Cf. Powell, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1930, 1956.
18. Shearman, 1959:39-40
19. Smith, Slater and Reilly, 1934:7
20. Cf. Milner and Smart, 1975, and Hilner, 1973.
21. The Liberal Catholic, March, 1979:3-4
22. Quoted in ibid:4
23. Cf. Phillips, 1980 and other undated works.
24. Lester Smith, 1982
27. E. Walker, 1982:7-8. A search of the Science Citation Index and standard listings of books reviews from 1980-1984 failed to locate any scientific reviews of Philips, 1980. Enthusiastic reviews have appeared in Theosophical journals.
28. A copy of Marque, 1896, was seen in the TS library at Adyar bearing Leadbeater's book plate.
29. Quoted in Communion, March, 1979:3-4
30. Lowel Ponte, "The Body Electric", in Penthouse, February, 1974:42-5, 57-8.
31. Cf. Milner and Smart, 1975.
32. *Some Occult Experiences, 1913
33. Shearman, 1959:43
34. See chapter 13 of this work.
35. See *The Inner Life, 1967, Vol. I:119, and *The Christian Creed, 1920;13
36. In *The Inner Life, 1967, Vol.I:119-20 Leadbeater claims that the four Gospels were based on a shorter document written in Hebrew by a monk named Hatthaeus in a monastery in the south of Palestine. This document was sent to a "huge monastery at Alexandria" where young monks wrote a number of versions of the story in Greek. Four of these survive, known by the names of the monks who wrote them, "each incorporating in his story more or less of the original manuscript of Mtthaeus, but also adding to it such legends as he happened to know, or as his taste and fancy
37. *The Science of the Sacraments, 1929:167
38. Sri Ram, in "On the Watch Tower" in The Theosophist, February, 1964, argued this.
39. Edward Lewis Gardner joined the TS in 1907, was the General Secretary of England, 1924-8, and later an international lecturer for the Society.
40. The theoretical, as opposed to the historical, material in Gardner 1963, was originally published in The Theosophist, July, 1963.
41. Gardner, 1963:5
42. Gardner, 1964:16
43. Gardner, 1963:9-10
44. Cf. Death - And After, 1972:27--39
45. Gardner, 1963:13
46. Letter from E.L. Gardner to Boris de Zirkoff, February 26th, 1965, seen in the Archives of Pt Loma Publications, San Diego, 1982
47. Hodson and van Thiel, nd.
48. Geoffrey Hodson (1886-1984) was born in England, and became involved in the occult after World War I. He was a lecturer for the TS thereafter until his death. His clairvoyant work has specialized in research into angels and fairies. His books have included Fairies at Work and At Play (1925), The Brotherhood of Angels and of Men (1927), The Inner Side of Church Worship (1930), and Clairvoyant Investigations of Christian Origins and Ceremonial (1977). For a biography, cf. John Robertson, Aquarian Occultist, no publisher or place, 1971
49. Shearman, 1959:39
50. In The Liberal Catholic, February, 1964:149-
53. Shearman's criticism in The American Theosophist,
July, 1964; Wood's reply in The American Theosophist, December, 1964, and The Canadian Theosophist, March-April, 1965.
54. Wood, 1965:10.
55. Letter from E.L. Gardner to Dick Balfour-Clarke, dated March 3rd, 1966, shown to the author by Balfour-Clarke, Adyar, 1979.
56. Information on Leadbeater's views of Alice Bailey from interviews with Dick Balfour-Clarke and Paula Mango, (Adyar, 1979).
57. Originally published in The Hindu, April 13, 1913; quoted in The O.E. Library Critic, May 10th, 1922.
58. Oscar Browning (1836-1923), sacked from his Housemaster's position at Eton for his sexual relations with boys, was noted for his boy "protoges", he had them sleep with him and share his bath "in case he were seized by sudden illness". They also shared duties as his secretaries. cf. Michael Harrison, Clarence, W.H. Allen, London, 1972:86. Browning's practices and justification for them are the same as Leadbeater's.
59. Interview with Dick Balfour-Clarke (Adyar, 1979)
60. In Hamerster, n.d., notation on a copy of an article from The Theosophist, February, 1937:403-14 [A]
61. I Kings 1:4; the woman was Abishag the -?-nammite.
62. Quoted in Benjamin Walker, Encyclopedia of Metaphysical Medicine, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 78:261
63. For a study of the phenomena, cf. Benjamin Walker?, above cit:260-262.
64. Annie Besant, The Pedigree of Man, TPH, Adyar, -?-43: it is difficult to see how the slightest hint of sexual teachings could be read into this work.
65. The O.E. Library Critic, January 19, 1921.
66. According to Rex Henry, "urgent steps" were taken by TS authorities to prevent the Kollerstrom diaries being accessible to the author; letter from Rex Henry to the author, December 13, 1979.
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67. The author had two lengthy interviews with Brigit Kollerstrom in London, 1978, on the subject of her late husband's statements about Leadbeater's sexual teachings. Oscar Kollerstrom's second wife, Jean Kollerstrom, DSc, confirmed the general principles and practices recalled by Oscar; letter from Dr Jean Kollerstrom to the author, December 4th, 1983.
68. Statement transcribed by Rex Henry and endorsed by Dick Balfour-Clarke, now in the possession of Mary Lutyens, London; information in a letter from Rex Henry to the author, January 16th, 1980.
69. Interview with Dick Balfour-Clarke (Adyar, 1979)
70. Clement quoted in Morton Smith, The Secret Gospel, London, 1974:16.
71. J.M. Prentice, C.W. Leadbeater, nd:4
72. Interviews with Brigit Kollerstrom (London, 1978) and Dick Balfour-Clarke (Adyar, 1979).
73. *Clairvovance, 1903:167-8
74. For general studies of tantra, cf. Arthur Avalon, Principles of Tantra, Ganesh and Co, Madras, 1955; Agehananda Bharati, The Tantric Tradition, Rider, London, 1965; Ajit Mookerjee and Madhu Khanna, The Tantric Way, Thames and Hudson, London, 1977. For a study which looks at modern developments, including those in the West, cf.
Benjamin Walker, Tantrism, Aquarian, Wellingborough, 1982.
75. Gardner's works on The Secret Doctrine teachings include The Wider View (1962), Thyself Both Heaven and Hell (1964), Whence Come the Gods (1959), A Mind to Embrace the Universe (1965), The Imperishable Body (1948), and The Heavenly Man (1952).
76. The letters from E.L. Gardner to Boris de Zirkoff were seen in the archives of Pt Loma Publications in San Diego in 1982. Following the death of de Zirkoff most of his substantial archives went to the American TS headquarters at Wheaton, Illinois, but some of them, including files of de Zirkoff's correspondence, went to San Diego. [PL, copy *]
77. Letter from E.L. Gardner to B. de Zirkoff, December 12th, 1964 [PL, copy *]
78. lbid: February 26th, 1965
79. Ibid: July 9th, 1966; for the magical use of semen in antiquity, cf. Ernest Crowley, The Mystic Rose, Watts and Co, London, 1932:100, 159-61.
80. Ibid: November 16th, 1966: On The Liberal Catholic Church has never been on public sale in TS bookshops, although published by the TPH, Adyar. The author obtained his copy by mail order from the American branch of the St Alban Press (publishers for the LCC) in 1972. When he subsequently enquired for it at the TPH in Sydney, they denied knowledge of the work.
81. Ibid: November 2nd, 1966
82. Gardner, 1966a:3
83. Gardner. 19h6b:1
84. H.P. Blavatsky Collected Writings, VII:239
85. Gardner, 1966b:3
86. Viewpoint Aquarius (London), No. 116, July/August, 1982 [*]
89. d'Arch Smith, 1970:xxii
91. For these religious figures, cf. Anson, 1964. Anson also details other clergymen, of the episcopi vagantes variety, who had interests in boys.
92. Cf. Hilliard, 1982
93. The best known work theorizing about such relationships is Plato's Symposium. Cf. K.J. Dover, Greek Homosexuality, Duckworth, London, 1978.
94. d'Arch Smith, 1970:229. Cf. Brian Taylor,"Motives for Guilt-Free Pederasty: Some Literary Considerations", in Sociological Review, February, 1976:97-114.
95. Benjamin Walker, The Hindu World, Frederick Praeger, NY, 1968, vol. II:391. Cf. King, 1971. For the links between sexuality and religion, cf. Clifford Howard, Sex and
Religion, Williams and Norgate, London, 1929, and B.Z. Goldberg, The Sacred Fire, Jarrolds, London,1937.
96. Drury and Tillett, 1978:79. There are parallels with the work of Wilhelm Reich (1897-1958) whose unorthodox psychological theory and practice focussed on sexuality and the need for "orgasm" (by which he means something much broader than usually understood); cf. his Function of the Orgasm, Panther Books, London, 1968. For magical developments of Reich's theories, cf. King, 1971:158-62. The most prominent practitioner of a system fusing Reich and magical, including sexual magic, theory, was Dr Israel Regardie (1907-1985), a former amanuensis of Aleister Crowley (during the years 1928-1934), and a prolific writer on magic. Regardie was, in part, trained by Oscar Kollerstrom; see Regardie's Be Yourself - The Art of Relaxation, Helios Books, Toddington, 1970:6.
97. Cf. Kenneth Grant, The Magical Revival, 1972:180-198. Spare taught a form of magical masturbation involving the direction of magical energy at the point of ejaculation, and the magical use of semen: see Grant, Kenneth: Images and Oracles of Austin Osman Spare, Frederick Muffler, London, 1975:56-7.
98. For Crowley's sexual manic, cf. Kenneth Grant, Aleister Crowley and the Hidden God, Frederick Muller, London, 1973, and Aleister Crowley, The Majical Record of the Beast 666, Edited by John Symonds and Kenneth Grant, Duckworth, London, 1972.
99. Cf. King, 1971:109-11
100. Dion Fortune, The Esoteric Philosophy of Love and Marriage, Samuel Wiser, New York, 1976:92
101. Dion Fortune, Psychic Self Defence, Aquarian Press, London, 1971:117-8.
102. See Kenneth Grant, Cults of the Shadow, Weiser, New York, 1976:136-8
103. For a hostile account of the Confraternity, with implications of immorality, cf. Walter Walsh, The Secret History of the Oxford Movement, Swan, Sonnenschein, London, 1898: Chap. VII.
104. Cf. Hilliard, 1982.
105 . The Liberal Catholic, January, 1950:7
106. For history and teachings of the OTO, cf. King, 1971:96-100,102-3; King, 1970:118-26,160-6; Webb, 1981:59-61; King and Sutherland, 1982:170-84; Francis King (Ed), The Secret Rituals of the O.T.O., C.W. Daniel, London, 1973; Benjamin Walker, Tantrism, above cit.:109-112. For Reuss, cf. Howe & Moller (1978).
107. King, 1971:96
108. For Deacon, cf. Drury and Tillett, 19713:28-30.
109. For Deacon's links with Norman Lindsay, cf. Vivienne Browning (i.e. Deacon's daughter), My Browning Family Album, Springwood, London, 1972. The standard works on Lindsay do not generally refer to his interest or involvement in spiritualism and the occult because of his family's concern about it. The author was given access to diaries and papers belonging to Deacon when interviewing his daughter, Mrs Elaine Baly (Vivienne Browning) in London in 1978, 1979 and 1982.
110. Browning, above cit.:106
111. The entries for Deacon and his wife were seen in the Register of St Alban's Church, Sydney.
112. Cf. Oriflamme (London and Berlin), September, 1912:211
113. Brook's Private Supplement to Neo-Theosophy Exposed, no date, was consulted in the archives of Pt Loma Publications, San Diego. [PL,*]
114. Quoted in Colquhoun, 1975:224.
115. For details of Machen's occult activities, cf. Colquhoun, 1975:221-7, 288-95, and King and Sutherland, 1982:106-10. "The Great God Pan", a short story, was first published in 1894, and was quickly denounced by some of its reviewers; in recent years it has been republished in Arthur Machen, Tales of Horror and the Supernatural, Vol. I, Panther, Frogmore, 1975:7-63.
116. For the Oneida Community, cf. John Whitworth, God's Blueprints, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1975:89-166; Mark Holloway, Heavens on Earth, Dover, New York, 1966:179-97; and Charles Nordhoff, The Communistic Societies of the United States, Schocken, New York, 1965:259-301.
117. van Dusen, 1975:x
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118. It is interesting to compare the writings of Leadbeater with those of Andrew Jackson Davis, "the seer of Poughkeepsie" (1826-1910) or Alice Bailey (1880-1949), or some of the modern seers who have created complex belief systems, for example L. Ron Hubbard (founder of Scientology), or Jane Roberts, the medium through whom the spirit "Seth" is said to have dictated numerous volumes. There are relatively few seers who have provided a fairly integrated mass of material for the creation of a whole cosmic picture.
119. Quoted in King and Sutherland, 1982:21.